Bladder cancer is the ninth most common cancer around the world, and is a severe urological cancer irrespective of sex. Approximately 65% of the bladder cancers will recur following surgery; with more than 20% of those patients showing an advanced and metastatic stage, with reducing prognosis. Antrocin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Antrodia cinnamomea, has been identified as a strong cytotoxic agent against lung and metastatic breast cancer cells; however, the effects and mechanisms of antrocin on cancer growth and metastasis remain largely unclear. This study showed that treatment with cytotoxic concentration of antrocin induced both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in human bladder cancer .
Overall, this is the first study which demonstrates that antrocin-inhibited migration and invasion of bladder cancer cells is partly via inactivation of FAK-paxillin and ERK-c-Fos-MMP2 signaling pathways. Both antrocin-induced intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis is through upregulation of pro-apoptotic proteins, including Bax, Fas, and DR5. These results provide insights for understanding the anti-cancer effects and mechanisms of antrocin in human bladder cancer cells and indicate that antrocin may be a potential therapeutic agent for invasive bladder cancer cells by inhibition of metastasis and induction of apoptosis.
Anti - Tumor - Antrodia camphorata is a popular folk medicine that has attracted great attention due to its fame for antitumor activity against cancer. In the present study, we purified a unique polysaccharide component from A. camphorata mycelia (AC-PS) and found that it has pronounced anti-tumor effects on both in vitro and in vivo model. Considering all these results, it is suggested that AC-PS elicit its anti-tumor effect by promoting a Th1-dominant state and killer activities.
Anti-Inflammatory - The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of liquid cultured mycelia of Antrodia cinnamomea (MEMAC) was judged by the measurement of the produced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Our results showed that MEMAC has the anti-inflammatory property both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that it may be a potential preventive or therapeutic candidate for the treatment of inflammatory disorders.
Apoptotic Effects on Carcinoma Cells - The purpose of this study was to evaluate the apoptotic effects of ethylacetate extract from A. camphorata (EAC) fruiting bodies in two human liver cancer cell lines, Hep G2 and PLC/PRF/5. Furthermore, EAC also inhibited the cell survival signaling by enhancing the amount of IκBα in cytoplasm and reducing the level and activity of NF-κB in the nucleus, and subsequently attenuated the expression of Bcl-XL in Hep G2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. EAC therefore decreased the cell growth and induced apoptosis both in Hep G2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells.
Antioxidant - The biologically active compounds, antioxidant activities, and free radical scavenging effects of dry matter of cultural medium (DMCM), filtrate (DMF), and different solvent extracts of mycelia from Antrodia camphorata in submerged culture (ACSC) were investigated. The antioxidant activities of filtrate and mycelial extracts were correlated with the presence of total polyphenols, the crude triterpenoids, and the protein/polysaccharide ratio of the crude polysaccharides. The results presented herein indicate that DMF could possibly act as a chemopreventing agent with respect to free radical-related diseases.