Bladder cancer is the ninth most common cancer around the world, and is a severe urological cancer irrespective of sex. Approximately 65% of the bladder cancers will recur following surgery; with more than 20% of those patients showing an advanced and metastatic stage, with reducing prognosis. Antrocin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Antrodia cinnamomea, has been identified as a strong cytotoxic agent against lung and metastatic breast cancer cells; however, the effects and mechanisms of antrocin on cancer growth and metastasis remain largely unclear. This study showed that treatment with cytotoxic concentration of antrocin induced both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in human bladder cancer .
Overall, this is the first study which demonstrates that antrocin-inhibited migration and invasion of bladder cancer cells is partly via inactivation of FAK-paxillin and ERK-c-Fos-MMP2 signaling pathways. Both antrocin-induced intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis is through upregulation of pro-apoptotic proteins, including Bax, Fas, and DR5. These results provide insights for understanding the anti-cancer effects and mechanisms of antrocin in human bladder cancer cells and indicate that antrocin may be a potential therapeutic agent for invasive bladder cancer cells by inhibition of metastasis and inducti