This species of mushrooms grows in coniferous woods near spruce or firs and more often than not near higher elevations. You can find these types of mushrooms in the United States, Canada, Japan and Korea. However it is commercially harvested in Queen Charlotte Islands.
These results suggest that Polyozellus multiplex is a candidate for chemoprevention against gastric cancer.
Methanol extract and its fractions of Polyozellus multiplex inhibited the growth of several tumor cell lines and its water fraction showed a higher cytotoxicity effect of the human gastric carcinoma cell, SNU668 than on the other cell lines.
Polozellus multiplex water fraction caused a significant reduction in the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labelling index in the glandular stomach epithelium as compared with the value of MNNG alone.
Anti-Inflammatory - Polyozellin isolated from Polyozellus multiplex (Thelephoraceae) displays potent anti-inflammatory effects in murine macrophages.
Here we evaluated whether polyozellin has the potential to ameliorate diseases characterized by mucosal inflammation in intestinal epithelial HT-29 cells.
These results suggest that polyozellin has the potential to attenuate intestinal inflammation and shed light on the novel signal pathway evoked by TNF-α during intestinal inflammation.
Polyozellin, which has been reported to have a variety of biological activities including antioxidant and anticancer activity, is the major active compound found in edible mushroom (Polyozellus multiplex). In this study, we investigated the antiseptic effects and underlying mechanisms of polyozellin against HMGB1-mediated septic responses in HUVECs and mice.
The anti-inflammatory activities of polyozellin were determined by measuring permeability, human neutrophil adhesion and migration, and activation of proinflammatory proteins in HMGB1-activated HUVECs and mice.
Collectively, these results indicate that P. multiplex containing polyozellin could be commercialized as functional food for preventing and treatment of various severe vascular inflammatory diseases via inhibition of the HMGB1 signaling pathway.
Anti-Angiogenesis Effects - One novel p-terphenyl compound, polyozellic acid (1), and its acetone adduct (3), along with a known p-terphenyl compound, thelephoric acid (2), were isolated from the mushroom Polyozellus multiplex.
In some assays related to angiogenesis, compounds 1 and 2 in particular showed inhibitory effects on proliferation, tubule formation, and invasion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
Anti-Viral - Blue chanterelle (Polyozellus multiplex), known as an edible mushroom, was extracted using methanol to screen on anti-viral agent. Syncytium formation in Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-infected baby hamster kidney (BHK) cell originates from the trafficking of viral glycoprotein into cell-surface.
These results suggested that blue chanterelle extracts inhibited the cell-surface expression of NDV-HN glycoprotein without significantly affecting HN glycoprotein synthesis in NDV-infected BHK cells.
Four p-terphenyls were identified from the ethanolic extract of P. multiplex; polyozellin (1), thelephoric acid (2), polyozellic acid (3), and kynapcin-12 (4).
Compounds 1–3 reduced the production of neurotoxic Aβ1-42 production in APPswe-N2a cells in a concentration-dependent manner.
P. multiplex and the isolated p-terphenyls might be useful in the development of lead compounds for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer's disease.
Polyozellus multiplex (PM), a Korean edible mushroom, has biological activities such as chemoprevention of stomach cancer, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and reduction of prolyl endopeptidase activity.
In this study, polyozellin (PZ), a key constituent of PM, was applied to glutamate-treated HT22 cells to evaluate its neuroprotective mechanisms.
These data suggest that PM and its constituent PZ might be useful for prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.
Anti-Cancer - Induction of cellular phase 2 detoxifying enzymes is associated with cancer preventive potential. Quinone reductase (QR) has been used as a prototype for anticarcinogenic phase 2 enzymes because of its widespread distribution in mammalian systems, large amplitude of inducer response, and ease of measurement in murine hepatoma cells.
Methanol extract of Polyozellus multiplex, which shows a strong QR induction potential, was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation, and polyozellin (PM1) appeared to be a major active component.
In in vitro cultured cells (hepa1c1c7 and BPRc1 cells), polyozellin enhanced QR, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, and glutathione (GSH) content in a dose-dependent manner.
The compound also significantly promoted differentiation of HL-60 human promyelocytic emia cells. In conclusion, polyozellin deserves further in vivo study to evaluate its potential as a cancer preventive agent.
Brain Enhancement - Prolyl endopeptidase [PEP] is a serine protease, which is known to cleave peptide substrates in the C-terminal side of proline residues6). It plays an important role in degradation of the proline-containing neuropeptides such as oxytocin, vasopressin, substance P, neurotensin and angiotensin, which were suggested to participate in learning and memory processes7'8-*. It was found that the PEP activity of Alzheimer's patients is significantly higher than that of the normal person9). It has been postulated that specific PEP inhibitors could prevent memory loss and increase attention span in patients suffering from senile dementia
Much effort has been devoted to search for PEP inhibitors in order to develop anti-dementia drugs. PEP inhibitors such as thelephoric acid, kynapcin-9, and polyozellin have been isolated from Polyozellus multiplex. During further investigation of the mushroom