While it is capable of producing roughly 15 to 30 fruits which each are roughly seven to ten centimeters. The outside of the fruit contains a green shell with yellow stripes.
All extracts displayed analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities at different doses without inducing acute toxicity. Topic results were obtained with immature fruits followed by seeds. The stem and root extracts were shown to possess the less significant inhibitory activity against analgesic and anti-inflammatory models.
Based on this study, they confirmed that Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. is a potentially useful drug suitable for further evaluation for rheumatoid arthritis, and its folk medicinal use as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents is validated.
Anti-Cancer - Our aim was to study the effects of cucurbitacin glucosides extracted from Citrullus colocynthis leaves on human breast cancer cell growth. Leaves were extracted, resulting in the identification of cucurbitacin B/E glucosides. The cucurbitacin glucoside combination (1:1) inhibited growth of ER+ MCF-7 and ER− MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines.
Cucurbitacin glucoside treatment also induced apoptosis, as measured by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and by changes in mitochondrial membrane potential.
These results suggest that cucurbitacin glucosides might have therapeutic value against breast cancer cells.
Anti-Bacterial - To assess in vitro antibacterial and anticandidal activity of aqueous and diluted acetone extracts of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. MIC and MBC/MFC were determined for plant organs at different maturation stages.
All extracts showed activity against all strains. The highest MICs and MBCs/MFCs were obtained from the fruit aqueous extracts (MIC 0.10 mg/ml against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, 0.20 mg/ml against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), lowest activity from the root extracts.
Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. shows antibacterial and anticandidal properties. The folk medicinal use as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent is validated.
From the results we may infer that the mode of action of 90% ethanolic extract of Citrullus colocynthis L. (200 mg/kg bw) in affording the in-vivo hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol may be due to the cell membrane stabilization, hepatic cell regeneration & normalizing the serum parame-ters.
Anti-Hyperglycaemic - Effects of the aqueous, glycosidic, alkaloidal and saponin extracts of the rind of Citrullus colocynthis on the plasma glucose levels were investigated in normal rabbits, while the effects of saponin extract on the fasting plasma glucose levels were studied in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.
These results suggest that the aqueous extract of the rind of C. colocynthis possesses a hypoglycaemic effect and its hypoglycaemic action could be attributed for more extent to the presence of saponin in addition to the presence of glycosidic components.
Free - Radicals - Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used as an abortifacient and to treat constipation, oedema, bacterial infections, cancer and diabetes. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant showed the presence of large amounts of phenolics and flavonoids. Subsequent quantification showed the presence of 0.74% phenolics (calculated as gallic acid) and 0.13% flavonoids calculated as catechin equivalents per 100 g of fresh mass.
The presence of phenolic compounds prompted us to evaluate its antioxidant activity. In the present study, methanolic fruit extract of C. colocynthis was screened to evaluate its free-radical scavenging ability.
The highest antioxidant and free radical scavenging effect of the fruit extract was observed at a concentration of 2500.
Anti-Diabetic - Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad fruit is an herbal medicine used by traditional herbalists for the treatment of diabetes in Iran. To determine its efficacy and toxicity, a 2 month clinical trial was conducted in 50 type II diabetic patients.
Two groups of 25 each under standard antidiabetic therapy, received 100 mg C. colocynthis fruit capsules or placebos three times a day, respectively.
C. colocynthis fruit treatment had a beneficial effect on improving the glycemic profile without severe adverse effects in type II diabetic patients.