These compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on TPA-induced inflammation (1 μg/ear) in mice and showed marked anti-inflammatory effects, with a 50% inhibitory dose of 0.50–0.91 μmol/ear.
Antioxidant - An extract of artichoke Cynara cardunculus L. (CCE) has been shown to exhibit antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties. In this study, the ability of CCE to inhibit the growth of L1210 and HL‐60 leukemia cells was studied.
The results suggest that CCE exerts an antiproliferative activity on leukemia cells and induces apoptosis of these cells through a mitochondrial/caspase dependent pathway.
Polyphenols are able to act as antioxidants by virtue of their hydrogen-donating and metal-chelating capacities. Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) is a species containing considerable amounts of polyphenolic compounds, namely flavonoids and phenolic acids.
This study examined the antioxidant activity of cardoon lyophilized infusion against superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, and hypochlorous acid.
Apoptosis - Apoptotic and cytotoxic activity of plant extracts obtaining from naturally growing Cynara syriaca in Turkey and cultivated C cardunculus against DLD1 colorectal cancer cells was determined. Extracts from wild and cultivated Cynara species were obtained from their vegetative parts and receptacles using hexane and applied with five different dose (0.1-1 mg/ml) as well as apigenin for MTT tests for three time periods (24, 48 and 72 hours).
Consequently, we found that pro-apoptotic (BAX) gene expression and a cell cycle inhibitor (p21) were induced in the presence of our artichoke extracts. In contrast, anti-apoptotic BCL-2 gene expression was reduced compared to the control group. In addition DNA fragmentation results demonstrated DLD1 cell death via apoptosis.
Anti-Inflammatory - The aim of the present work was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of Cynara cardunculus L. (Asteraceae) during its growth using various solvents such as n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol for air-dried leaves and stems.
Chemopreventative - The extract of artichoke Cynara cardunculus L. (CCE) was investigated for its potential antigenotoxic and antioxidant effects using four experimental model systems.
It could be concluded that CCE is of particular interest as a suitable candidate for an effective chemopreventive agent.
Current results are very promising concerning the application of Cc extracts for tumor prevention and/or curative therapies; however, there is a long way to go. Further studies are required particularly focused on the identification of compounds responsible for the anticarcinogenic activities described (anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenesis and anti-migratory activities). In addition, a better understanding of the molecular pathways involved in these biological responses is also required.
Besides being traditionally used to relieve hepatobiliary disorders, Cynara cardunculus L. has evidenced anticancer potential on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). This study highlights the antiproliferative effects of lipophilic extracts from C. cardunculus L. var. altilis (DC) leaves and florets, and of their major compounds, namely cynaropicrin and taraxasteryl acetate, against MDA-MB-231 cells.
The present study demonstrates important data about the in vitro antiproliferative potential of C. cardunculus L. var. altilis (DC) leaves and florets lipophilic extracts, and their major compounds, i.e., cynaropicrin and taraxasteryl acetate, against TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells, a highly refractory human cancer.
Antinociceptive - Is a process of blocking the detection of a painful or injurious stimulus by sensory neurons. ntinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of a peptide concentrate mix (PepC) obtained from whey protein, via hydrolysis with cardosins from Cynara cardunculus, was tested in vivo. The antinociceptive effect was assessed using writhing, hot-plate and formalin tests in mice, and the anti-inflammatory effect using the paw oedema test.
PepC appears to possess anti-inflammatory and peripheral antinociceptive activities, so it may be a candidate for nutraceutical ingredient.