There is a compound called proanthocyanldins which is a type of polyphenol and it contains many antioxidant properties. This compound is the reason the free radical scavenging properties exist in the grape seeds.
Gallic acid decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in both DU145 and 22Rv1 cells largely via apoptosis induction.
Taken together, our findings show the anti-PCa efficacy of gallic acid and provide a rationale for additional studies with this naturally-occurring agent for its efficacy against PCa.
We investigated the in vivo efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE, patented as Traconol) against prostate cancer (PCA) and associated molecular events.
Collectively, present findings provide in vivo evidence for antiproliferative, apoptotic and antiangiogenic effects of GSE, and their correlation with inhibition of advanced human prostate tumor xenograft growth in athymic nude mice.
Anti-Cancer - In this study they investigated the anti-cancer effects of grape seed extract (GSE) and doxorubicin (Dox), either alone or in combination, in estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 and receptor-negative MDA-MB468 human breast carcinoma cells.
In quantitative apoptosis studies, GSE and Dox alone and in combination showed comparable apoptotic death of MCF-7 cells, however, a combination of the two was inhibitory to Dox induced apoptosis in MDA-MB468 cells.
Together, these results suggest a strong possibility of synergistic efficacy of GSE and Dox combination for breast cancer treatment, independent of estrogen receptor status of the cancer cell.
In this next study they investigated the in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects and associated mechanisms of grape seed extract (GSE), a rich source of proanthocyanidins, against colorectal cancer.
GSE may be an effective chemopreventive agent against colorectal cancer, and that growth inhibitory and apoptotic effects of GSE against colorectal cancer could be mediated via an up-regulation of Cip1/p21.
Grapes and grape-based products are one such class of dietary products that have shown cancer chemopreventive potential and are also known to improve overall human health. This review focuses on recent advancements in cancer chemopreventive and anticancer efficacy of grape seed extract and other grape-based products.
Completed studies from various scientific groups conclude that both grapes and grape-based products are excellent sources of various anticancer agents and their regular consumption should thus be beneficial to the general population.
These results suggest that GSE possibly causes mitochondrial damage leading to cytochrome c release in cytosol and activation of caspases resulting in PARP cleavage and execution of apoptotic death of human PCA DU145 cells. Furthermore, GSE-caused caspase 3-mediated apoptosis also involves other pathway(s) including caspase 9 activation.
Grape seed extract has been proven to exert anticancer effects on different tumors.
These data support the hypothesis by which other compounds, present in the grape seed extracts, are likely to enhance the anticancer effects.
Since GSE strongly induced apoptosis independent of its affect on an increase in phospho-ERK1/2, we hypothesized that apoptotic effect of GSE could be by other mechanism(s) including its effect on stress-associated MAPK, the JNK.
Indeed, GSE-treated cells showed a strong and sustained increase in phospho-JNK1/JNK2 levels, JNK activity and phospho-cJun levels. An inhibition of GSE-induced JNK activation by a novel JNK inhibitor SP600125 resulted in a significant reversal of GSE-induced apoptotic death suggesting the involvement of JNK activation by GSE in its apoptosis response.
Together, these results suggest that anticancer effects of GSE in PCA be mediated via impairment of EGFR–ERK1/2–Elk1–AP1-mediated mitogenic signaling and activation of JNK causing growth inhibition and apoptosis, respectively.
Chemoprevention - This study was carried out to determine whether GSE added to rodent diets protected against carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats and whether this was affected by the composition of the whole diet.
These results demonstrate that GSE is chemopreventive in an animal model of breast cancer; moreover, the diet dependency of the chemopreventive activity for both GSE and genistein suggests that whether or not a compound is chemopreventive may depend on the diet in which the agent is administered.