In this study, we focused on the beneficial effects of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid, a major metabolite of chlorogenic acid. We carried out in vitro and in vivo experiments.
We found that both chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid had effects on intestinal ischemia–reperfusion injury. Since caffeic acid has a stronger antioxidant activity than that of chlorogenic acid and chlorogenic acid is hydrolyzed into caffeic acid in the intestine, it is possible that caffeic acid plays a major role in the protective effect of chlorogenic acid against ischemia–reperfusion injury.
Anti-Tumor - The effects of topically applied curcumin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity, epidermal DNA synthesis, and the promotion of skin tumors were evaluated in female CD-1 mice.
Similar treatment of mice with 10 µmol of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, or ferulic acid together with 5 nmol of TPA inhibited the number of TPA-induced tumors per mouse by 60, 28, or 35%, respectively, and higher doses of the phenolic acids caused a more pronounced inhibition of tumor promotion.
Weight Loss - The results from a clinical study performed in 12 healthy volunteers with different coffee products containing glucose show that instant coffee enriched with chlorogenic acid induced a reduction in the absorption of glucose of 6.9% compared with the control.
It is concluded that chlorogenic acid enriched instant coffee appears to have a significant effect on the absorption and utilization of glucose from the diet. This effect, if the coffee is used for an extended time, may result in reduced body mass and body fat when compared with the use of normal instant coffee.
Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are thermally labile phenolic compounds that play an important role in the final cup quality and health benefits of coffee. Considering the interest in finding a reliable method to predict weight loss and CGA content in coffee, models have been developed to estimate these parameters during roasting. Weight loss was successfully modeled (r = 0.99) independent of the instant temperature.
In both cases distinct models for Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora were calculated, because of differences in chemical composition and cell wall structure between these species. The proposed models may become important predictive tools in the coffee industry.
Food Additive and a Nutraceutical against Metabolic Syndrome - The first part of this review will discuss the role of chlorogenic acid as a nutraceutical for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and associated disorders, including in vivo studies, clinical trials, and mechanisms of action. The second part of the review will be dealing with the role of chlorogenic acid as a food additive. Chlorogenic acid has shown antimicrobial activity against a wide range of organisms, including bacteria, yeasts, molds, viruses, and amoebas.
The combination of these properties makes chlorogenic acid an excellent candidate for the formulation of dietary supplements and functional foods.
Apoptosis - Kidney cancer is a highly lethal cancer, of which the most common type is renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The targeted drugs used in treating RCC clinically have a lot of side effects. Therefore, it is urgent to find out effective agents with little toxic effects.
Research firstly reports the efficacy of CA against RCC cells and elucidates the underlying molecular mechanisms. These findings indicate that CA is a potential agent for treating RCC.
Anti-Cancer - New paradigm in cancer pathogenesis revealed that microenvironmental conditions significantly contribute to cancer. Hence, Warburg stated that cancer is a metabolic disease. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a polyphenol that is found abundantly in coffee. This compound has proven ability in ameliorating some metabolic diseases through various pathways. This article will elaborate the potency of CGA as a chemosensitizer in suppressing tumor growth through a metabolic pathway. AMPK pathway is the main cell metabolic pathway that is activated by CGA in some studies.
Based on the ability of CGA in activate and inhibit some important pathways in cancer metabolism, it may act as a chemosensitizing agent leading to cancer growth suppression.
Increases in the mRNA expression of colonic macrophage inflammatory protein 2 and IL-1β, which were induced by DSS, were significantly suppressed by CHA supplementation. These results suggest that dietary CHA use may aid in the prevention of intestinal inflammatory conditions.
Anti-Diabetic - Chlorogenic acid (CGA) has been shown to stimulate glucose uptake in skeletal muscle through the activation of AMPK. However, its effect on other metabolic pathways and likewise its effects after long-term consumption have yet to be understood. In this study they investigated the effects of CGA on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, hepatic gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism and skeletal muscle glucose uptake in Leprdb/db mice.
Inhibition and knockdown of AMPK abrogated these metabolic alterations. In conclusion, CGA improved glucose and lipid metabolism, via the activation of AMPK.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) and chlorogenic acid (CGA) against streptozotocin (STZ)–nicotinamide (NA)-induced type 2 diabetes in adult Wistar rats.
Though the diabetic rats treated with THC and CGA individual exerts beneficial effects in all the biochemical parameters in (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The combined treatment with THC and CGA normalized all the above-mentioned biochemical parameters in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
Normal pancreatic histological architecture in THC and CGA treated diabetic rats revealed that these phytochemical exert higher degree of protection when administered in combination than single treatment of individual compounds.
Treatment of NAFLD - Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the leading causes of chronic liver diseases around the world and commonly associated with insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. Chlorogenic acid (CG) was reported to have insulin-sensitizing activity and exert hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic effect. However, the involvement of CG in NAFLD remains far from being addressed. In this study, a high-fat diet-induced NAFLD rat model was used to investigate the biological roles and underlying mechanism of CG in NAFLD.
Glucose and Insulin - The current study investigates whether a Chlorogenic acid/Chromium III supplement rescues obesity and insulin resistance caused by high-fat feeding of male C57BL/6 J mice for 7 weeks. Administering an oral daily dose of this supplement in the last 3 weeks of feeding reversed diet-induced body weight gain and insulin resistance, assessed by hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance and insulin intolerance.
These findings underscore the important role that chlorogenic acid and chromium play in maintaining glucose metabolism and insulin response in mice fed a high-fat diet.
Blood Pressure - Several dietary supplements are currently marketed for management of hypertension, but the evidence for effectiveness is conflicting. Our objective was to critically appraise and evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) on blood pressure, using data from published randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Electronic searches were conducted in Medline, Embase, Amed, Cinahl and The Cochrane Library. They also hand-searched the bibliographies of all retrieved articles. Two reviewers independently determined the eligibility of studies and extracted the data.
The size of the effect is moderate. Few clinical trials have been conducted; they vary in design and methodology and are confined to Asian populations and funded by CGA manufacturers. Large independent trials evaluating the effects of CGA on blood pressure are warranted.