It was able to remove the tumor cells, and the regular cell cycles progression was able to return back to it's original state.
Following the chronic oral administration (10 mg/kg/day for 28 days), significant levels of tangeretin were detected in the hypothalamus, striatum and hippocampus (3.88, 2.36 and 2.00 ng/mg, respectively).
These studies, for the first time, give evidence that tangeretin crosses the blood–brain barrier. The significant protection of striato-nigral integrity and functionality by tangeretin suggests its potential use as a neuroprotective agent.
Apoptosis - Certain anti-cancer agents are known to induce apoptosis in human tumour cells. However, these agents are intrinsically cytotoxic against cells of normal tissue origin, including myelocytes and immunocytes.
Here we show that a naturally occurring flavone of citrus origin, tangeretin (5,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone), induces apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukaemia HL-60 cells, whereas the flavone showed no cytotoxicity against human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
Flow cytometric analysis of tangeretin-treated HL-60 cells also demonstrated apoptotic cells with low DNA content and showed a decrease of G1 cells and a concomitant increase of S and/or G2/M cells. Apoptosis was evident after 24 h of incubation with tangeretin, and the tangeretin effect as assessed by DNA fragmentation or growth inhibition was significantly attenuated in the presence of Zn2+, which is known to inhibit Ca(2+)-dependent endonuclease activity.
These results suggest that tangeretin inhibits growth of HL-60 cells in vitro, partially through induction of apoptosis, without causing serious side-effects on immune cells.
Anti-Cancer - In the present study, we investigated the use of a Notch-1 inhibiting compound as a novel therapeutic candidate to regulate radiation-induced EMT in GC cells. According to previous screening, tangeretin, a polymethoxylated flavonoid from citrus fruits was selected as a Notch-1 inhibitor. Tangeretin enhanced the radiosensitivity of GC cells as demonstrated by MTT and colony formation assays.
An in vivo tumor xenograft model confirmed the antimetastasis effect of tangeretin as we observed in vitro. In nude mice, tumor size was considerably diminished by radiation plus tangeretin co-treatment. Tangeretin almost completely inhibited lung metastasis induced by irradiation. Tangeretin may be a novel antimetastatic agent for radiotherapy.