CONCLUSIONS We demonstrated for the first time that H. pylori infection leads to an increased rate of incident diabetes in a prospective cohort study. Our findings implicate a potential role for antibiotic and gastrointestinal treatment in preventing diabetes.
Rationale: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are popular drugs for gastroesophageal reflux, which are now available for long-term use without medical supervision. Recent reports suggest that PPI use is associated with cardiovascular, renal, and neurological morbidity.
Objective: To study the long-term effect of PPIs on endothelial dysfunction and senescence and investigate the mechanism involved in PPI-induced vascular dysfunction.
Methods and Results: Chronic exposure to PPIs impaired endothelial function and accelerated human endothelial senescence by reducing telomere length.
Conclusions:Our data may provide a unifying mechanism for the association of PPI use with increased risk of cardiovascular, renal, and neurological morbidity and mortality.
Traditionally, reflux esophagitis was assumed to develop as a caustic, chemical injury inflicted by refluxed acid. Recently, however, studies in rats and humans suggest that reflux esophagitis develops as a cytokine-mediated inflammatory injury, with hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-2α playing a major role. In response to the reflux of acid and bile, HIF-2α in esophageal epithelial cells becomes stabilized, thereby increasing production of pro-inflammatory cytokines that attract T lymphocytes and other inflammatory cells to damage the esophagus. Recent studies have identified small molecule inhibitors of HIF-2α that demonstrate exquisite isoform selectivity, and clinical trials for treatment of HIF-2α-driven kidney cancers are ongoing. It is conceivable that a HIF-2α-directed therapy might be a novel approach to prevention and treatment of reflux esophagitis.
Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection increases the risk of gastric cancer and induction of hypoxia-induced factor (HIF), which is frequently associated with the development and progression of several types of cancer. We recently showed that H. pylori activation of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway in gastric cells increased HIF-1α expression. Here, we identified the H. pylori virulence factor responsible for HIF-1α induction. A mutant of the H. pylori 84-183 strain was identified with reduced ability to induce HIF-1α. Coomassie blue staining of extracts from these bacteria separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed poor expression of urease subunits that correlated with reduced urease activity. This finding was confirmed in the 26695 strain, where urease mutants were unable to induce HIF-1α expression. Of note, HIF-1α induction was also observed in the presence of the urease inhibitor acetohydroxamic acid at concentrations (of 20 mM) that abrogated urease activity in bacterial culture supernatants, suggesting that enzymatic activity of the urease is not required for HIF-1α induction. Finally, the pre-incubation of the human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line AGS with blocking antibodies against Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), but not TLR4, prevented HIF-1α induction. In summary, these results reveal a hitherto unexpected role for the urease protein in HIF-1α induction via TLR2 activation following H. pylori infection of gastric cells.