INTERSTELLAR PARASLAYER ANTIHELMINTIC!
Anthelmintics are a group of antiparasitic agents that expel parasitic worms (helminths) and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host.
KILL THE WORMS!
Featuring: Acacia Catechu • Acacia Nilotica • Acalypha Rhomboidea • Achyranthes Aspera • Acorus Calamus • Ajania Nubigena • Akanda (Calotropis Gigantea L.) • Albendazole • Albizia Anthelmintica Maerua Edulis • Albizia Gummifera • Allophylus Serratus • Alocasia Indica • Alpinia Galanga • Alstonia Boonei De Wild • Amaranthus Caudatus • Amaranthus Spinosus • Amorphophallus Paeoniifolius Tuber • Anaphalis Lawii • Annona Reticulata • Anthocleista Djalonensis . • Argemone Mexicana • Arisaema Lobatum • Aristolochia Indica • Artemisia Maritima • Artemisia Parviflora • Artemisia Vestita Wall Ex Dc • Artocarpus Lakoocha • Asparagus Racemosus • Asuro (Justicia Adhatoda) • Asystasia Gangeticum • Averrhoea Carambola • Azadirachta Indica • Baccaurea Ramiflora • Balanites Aegyptiaca • Baliospermum Montanum Muell • Barleria Gibsoni Dalz • Bauhinia Purpurea • Berlina Grandiflora • Biophytum Petersianum • Bougainvillea Glabra • Bridelia Ferruginae • Bryophyllum Pinnatum • Bryophyte Pottia Lanceolata • Caesalpinia Crista • Caesalpinia Pulcherrima • Caesalpinia Sappan • Cajanus Cajan • Camellia Sinensis • Canarium Schweinfurthii • Cansjera Rheedii Root Extract • Capparis Spinosa • Cardanthera Difformis Druce • Carica Papaya • Carissa Carandas • Carum Copticum • Cassia Fistula • Cassia Siamea Lamk • Cassia Tora • Castor Oil And Mustard Oil • Chenopodium Album • Chlorophytum Borivilianum Santapau • Chromolaena Odorata • Cissampelos Pareira • Cissus Quadrangularis L. • Citrus Medica • Clerodendrum Viscosum • Cloris Barbata • Coleus Aromaticus Benth • Coriandrum Sativum • Curcuma Longa Cyperus Rotundus • Dioscorea Bulbifera • Diplazium Esculentum • Drosera Regia • Drynaria Quercifolia • Eclipta Prostrate • Eichhornia Crassipes Roots • Elytraria Acaulis • Emblliaribes • Enicostemma Littorale Blume • Equisetum Arvense • Eucalyptus Globulus • Eugenia Jambolana • Eupatorium Triplinerve • Euphorbia Helioscopia • Euphorbia Ligularia Roxb • Evolvulus Alsinoides L • Ficus Vasta • Garcinia Cambogia • Goniothalamus Sesquipedalis • Gossypium Herbaceum • Grape Pomace Extract • Guava • Hedychium Spichatum • Helicteres Isora • Hugonia Mystax • Indigofera Oblongifolia • Iris Hookeriana • Ixora Coccinea • Jasminum Sessiliflorum • Juglans Regia • Justicia Beddomei • Kyllinga Nemoralis • Lagenaria Siceraria • Lanata Camara • Lasia Spinosa • Macrotyloma Uniflorum • Majoon Sarakhs • Malabathricum Linn Leaves And Nigella Sativa • Mallow (Malva Sylvestris L.) • Marine Sponge Extracts • Melia Azedarach • Melothria Heterophylla Lour • Memecyclon Malabaricum • Mentha Longifolia • Microphyllus Leaves • Millettia Pachycarpa • Mitragyna Parvifolia • Molineria Recurvata • Momordica Charantia • Momordica Dioica • Morinda Citrifolia • Myristica Fragrans • Nauclea Diderrichii • Neolamarckia Cadamba • Nepeta Cataria Suhaib • Nerium Oleander • Nigella Sativa • Nymphaea Rubra • Ocimum Basilicum • Ocimum Sanctum • Olea Europaea • Oleandra Musifolia • Pajanelia Longifolia • Paris Polyphylla • Pavetta Indica • Pelletíerine And Isopelletierine • Pineapple Leaf • Piper Betle • Piper Longum L • Plumbago Zeylanica • Pongamia Glabra • Prosopis Cineraria • Raphanus Sativus • Rhizophora Apiculata • Ridge Gourd • Rotula Aquatica Lour Bark • Rumex Hastatus • Saba Florida • Saraca Indica • Sesamum Indicum • Shea (Vitellaria Paradoxa) • Solanum Nigrum • Solanum Surattense • Soymida Febrifuga • Sterculia Villosa • Syzygium Aromaticum • Tectona Grandis • Tephrosea Purpurea • Terminalia Citrina Leaves • Trapa Natans • Trianthema Portulacastrum And Musa Paradisiaca • Tridax Procumbens • Trigonella Foenum-Graecum • Trikatu Churna • Tulsi Leaves [Ocimum Sanctum] • Vepris Louisii Gilbert • Vidangadi Churna • Viscum Congolensis • Vitex Trifolia • Xanthium Indicum Leaves • Ximenia Americana • Zanthoxylum Armatum • Zizyphus Jujuba Mill •
INGREDIENTS & Science:
From ancient time Acacia catechu Willd. (AC) is used as a potent medicinal. Preliminary phytochemical tests were conducted with the crude extract obtained from the leaves of AC reveals the presence of carbohydrates, steroids, alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, saponins, flavones, and phenolic. anthelmintic activity of petroleum ether, ethanolic and ethanol:water (1:1) extracts of leaves of AC was evaluated by adult Indian earthworm, (Pheretima posthuma). The anthelmintic activity of extract was compared with standard albendazole. Ethanol:water (1:1) extract was found to possess potent anthelmintic activity and petroleum ether extract was found to be least active, while ethanol:water (1:1) extract playing an intermediate role. The anti-inflammatory activity of leaves extracts at the doses of 300mg/kg body weight was investigated in albino rats of wiester strain using carrageenan induced rat paw oedema. The ethanol extract of leaves showed significant anti-inflammatory activity (45%) when compared with the standard (54%). Further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles which are responsible for the anthelmintic and anti-inflammatory activity.
anthelmintic activity, Acacia nilotica, Pheretimaposthuma, methanol extract, aqueous extract, phytochemical analysis There are various beneficial effects of Acacia nilotica since the ancient time is being reported. But in the project work anthelmintic activity against Pheretimaposthuma (an Indian earthworms is being studied by applying two different concentrations of plant methanolic extract. The result is then compared with standard drug Albendazole and control group. The pharmaceutical constituent of Acacia nilotica is being also studied here.
The anthelmintic activities of methanolic and aqueous extracts of stems of Achyranthes aspera linn. were evaluated separately on Indian adult earthworms Pheretima posthuma (Annelida). For this work the stems were extracted separately with methanol and distilled water by following maceration method. Various concentrations (2.5, 5, 10, 20 mg/ml) of each extract were tested for anthelmintic activity which involved the determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. The phytochemical screening of the crude extract showed the presence of saponins A and B, terpenoids, volatile oils. All extracts were able to show anthelmintic activity at all concentrations. The activities are well comparable with the standard drug, Albendazole as positive control. All the methanolic extracts showed better anthelmintic activity than the standard drug as well as the aqueous extract. Tween 20 (1%) with saline was used as negative control, did not showed any anthelmintic activity.
The study revealed that b-asarone is the active principle of plant. The HPLC analysis of local variety of A. calamus revealed that active fraction contains 83.54% (w/w) of b-asarone. The in vivo study revealed that treatment of H. diminuta infected rats by a single 800 mg/kg dose of rhizome extract for 5 days results into 62.30% reduction in eggs per gram of feces counts and 83.25% reduction in Worm counts of animals. These findings compared well with the efficacy of a reference drug, praziquantel. The active principle b-asarone showed slightly better anthelmintic effects than crude extract. In acute toxicity assay, a single oral 2000 mg/kg dose of extract did not reveal any signs of toxicity or mortality in mice, and the LD50 of the extract was noted to be >2000 mg/kg.
Taken together, the results of this study indicate that rhizomes of A. calamus bear significant dose-dependent effects against intestinal helminths. Further, the Indian variety of A. calamus contains high b-asarone content. Therefore, there exists a great potential to develop some suitable anthelmintic herbal products from this plant.
Background: whipworms and blood flukes combined infect almost one billion people in developing countries. Only a handful of anthelmintic drugs are currently available to treat these infections effectively; there is therefore an urgent need for new generations of anthelmintic compounds. Medicinal plants have presented as a viable source of new parasiticides Ajania nubigena, the Bhutanese daisy, has been used in Bhutanese traditional medicine for treating various diseases and our previous studies revealed that small molecules from this plant have antimalarial properties. Encouraged by these findings, we screened four major compounds isolated from A. nubigena for their anthelmintic properties.
Akanda (Calotropis Gigantea L.)
This comprehensive review briefly describes the history and pharmacology of albendazole as an anthelminthic drug and presents detailed summaries of the efficacy and safety of albendazole’s use as an anthelminthic in humans. Cure rates and 0% egg reduction rates are presented from studies published through March 1998 both for the recommended single dose of 400 mg for hookworm (separately for Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale when possible), Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis and, in separate tables, for doses other than a single dose of 400 mg. Overall cure rates are also presented separately for studies involving only children 2-15 years. Similar tables are also provided for the recommended dose of 400 mg per day for 3 days in Strongyloides stercoralis, Taenia spp. and Hymenolepis nana infections and separately for other dose regimens. The remarkable safety record involving more than several hundred million patient exposures over a 20 year period is also documented, both with data on adverse experiences occurring in clinical trials and with those in the published literature and/or spontaneously reported to the company. The incidence of side effects reported in the published literature is very low, with only gastrointestinal side effects occurring with an overall frequency of just >1% . Albendazole’s unique broad-spectrum activity is exemplified in the overall cure rates calculated from studies employing the recommended doses for hookworm (78% in 68 studies: 92%, for A. duodenale in 23 studies and 75% for N. americanus in 30 studies), A. lumbricoides (95% in 64 studies), T. trichiura (48% in 57 studies), E. vermicularis (98% in 27 studies), S. stercoralis (62% in 19 studies), H. nana (68% in 11 studies), and Taenia spp. (85% in 7 studies). The facts that albendazole is safe and easy to administer, both in treatment of individuals and in treatment of whole communities where it has been given by paramedical and nonmedical personnel, have enabled its use to improve general community health, including the improved nutrition and development of children.
Albizia anthelmintica Maerua Edulis
The use of medicinal plants for the control of helminthoses has been in practice for centuries and there are many plants claimed to have anthelmintic activity. However, it is only a few of these plants that have their anthelmintic activity scientifically evaluated. These studies were done to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of Albizia anthelmintica Brogn, Maerua edulis De Wolf and Maerua subcordata De Wolf in sheep and mice and to determine the bioactivity of these plants using brine shrimp lethality test. An attempt was also made to separate the pharmacological active ingredient in Albizia anthelmintica water extract. A questionnaire was used to obtain medicinal plants used by farmers and herbalists in Kibwezi Division of Makueni district and Tunyo division of Marakwet district as anthelmintic. Out of 51 useful plants identified in Kibwezi, Albizia anthelmintica (Kyoa in Kikamba) and Maerua edulis (Munatha in Kikamba) were singled out by herbalists as very potent anthelmintics. In Tunyo division Albizia anthelmintica (Kitwongwo in Marakwet) and Maerua subcordata (Liswa in Marakwet) were identified as potent anthelmintics. For this reason, they were collected and botanically identified for further testing and analysis. The anthelmintic activity of the three plants was evaluated in the present study. Crude extraction of the plant samples was done as described by the herbalists. An aqueous extract from both unground and ground material of each plant material was prepared using boiling water. Twenty one clinically healthy sheep of mixed breeds and sexes were randomly allocated to four treatment groups of four animals each. The control group had three sheep. Faecal egg counts were done for all the sheep on day O. A single oral dose of 1.2 ml/kg body weight (Albizia anthelmintica ) and 0.8 ml/kg body weight (Maerua edulis) was administered to the sheep in the 4 treatment groups. The control was left untreated. Albizia anthelmintica extract was the only one which reduced faecal egg count. At double the dose, the percentage faecal egg count reduction was 55, 49, 38, 16 and 14 for powdered Albizia anthelmintica, powdered Maerua edulis, fresh Maerua subcordata, fresh Maerua edulis and fresh Albizia anthelmintica respectively. Therefore, the crude product could control helminthoses to a reasonable extent and maintain the animal at clinically healthy state. Brine shrimp assay was used to detect bioactivity (LC50) in the vanous extracts of Albizia anthelminitica, Maerua subcordata and Maerua edulis. The various extracts were made using water, methanol and chloroform and immediately freeze dried. Brine shrimp eggs obtained from pet shops were hatched using marine salt solution as media and yielded a large number of larvae. Serial dilution of the plant extracts were put into tubes with 10 brine shrimps each. The number of live larvae was determined after 24 hours. Probit method of the Finney computer programme was used to determine the lethal concentration fifty (LC50) and 95% confidence intervals. It was evident that the chloroform extract of the three plant extracts was the most toxic to the brine shrimps compared to water and methanol extracts. Albizia anthelmintica extracts of all the solvents was the most potent compared with the two Maerua species. The anthelmintic efficacy of the three plants was studied in mice experimentally infected with Heligmosomoides polygyrus. The results indicated a percentage faecal xv Heligmosomoides polygyrus egg count reduction of 72%, 69%, 50%, 42% using water extracts of Albizia anthelmintica at 10gm/kg bodyweight, Maerua edulis at 20gm/kg bodyweight, Albizia anthelmintica at 20gm/kg bodyweight and Albizia anthelmintica at 5gmlkg bodyweight respectively. Seven days after treatment there was a reduction in Worm counts at postmortem of 68%, 36%, 20%, 19%,16% and 14% for water extracts of Albizia anthelmintica at 5gmlkg bodyweight, Maerua edulis at 10gmlkg bodyweight, Albizia anthelmintica at 10gmlkg bodyweight, Albizia anthelmintica at 20gm/kg bodyweight, Maerua edulis at 20gm/kg bodyweight and Maerua edulis at 5gm/kg bodyweight respectively. Mice treated with Albizia anthelmintica at 5gm/kg bodyweight had a significantly lower mean Worm counts than the rest of the treatment groups and the control (p<0.05).There was insignificant reduction in Worm counts for other treatment groups compared with the control (p<0.05). The column and thin layer chromatography done on the aqueous extract of Albizia anthelmintica yielded only one fraction which was active and had a relative fraction (Rf) of 0.75. The results therefore indicate that the plant have some anthelmintic activity though low with Albizia anthelmintica being most efficacious. The bioactive fraction in Albizia anthelmintica obtained through chromatographic techniques indicate that there is a rationale in the use of this plant as an anthelmintic by the pastoralists. There is therefore a need to identify the active ingredient in Albizia anthelmintica for future commercial use.
Albizia gummifera, Crotalaria axillaris, Manilkara discolor, Teclea trichocarpa and Zanthoxylum usambarense are used to treat different ailments in many parts of the world. For instance, A. gummifera is used to treat stomach pains, malaria, diarrhoea and sleeping sickness while C. axillaris treats ophthalmic disorders and kidney problems. Manilkara discolor stem bark infusion is used to treat stomach disorders and as an astringent while T. trichocarpa has been used to treat malaria, helminth infections and fever. Zanthoxylum usambarense is used to treat rheumatism, backache, painful joints, fever, sore throat, tonsillitis, chest pains, malaria, abscesses and wounds. Objective : The aim was to determine whether the crude plant extracts have in vitro anthelmintic activity. Materials and methods : Different parts of the plants were acquired from Ngong Hills forest, Kajiado County, Kenya in May 2012, dried and macerated to exhaustion with dichloromethane: methanol (1:1, v/v) solution. nematode eggs ( Haemonchus Spp, Trichostrongylus Spp and Oesophagostomum Spp) were obtained from infected sheep rectums at Department of Vet Farm, University of Nairobi based at Kabete. Varying concentrations of water solutions of the dry crude extracts were prepared. Egg hatch (EHA) and larvae development assays (LDA) were used to test the extracts’ effects on nematode egg hatching and larvae development, respectively Results : Albizia gummifera (root bark) and Zanthoxylum usambarense (stem bark) showed high activity (IC 50 below 300 μg / mL) in both tests. Albizia gummifera (root, stem bark and pods), Zanthoxylum usambarense root bark, Crotalaria axillaris twigs and Teclea trichocarpa root and stem bark showed high activity in LDAbut moderate activity (300 μg / mL 500 μg / mL) activity in EHA. Manilkara discolor extracts showed low activity in both tests. Conclusion: Different extracts of the plants tested may inhibit nematode growth and development and hence warrant in vivo tests would support their ethnomedicinal application. Key words: anthelmintic activity, egg hatch, larval development, Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum
ABSTRACT:Aim: The study was aimedto evaluate the In-Vitro anthelmintic activity of Allophylus serratus on Indian earthworms.Materials &Methods: Differentconcentrations like 100mg/ml, 200mg/ml and 400mg/ml of Allophylus serratus leaf extract with ethanol were taken and were tested for time of paralysis and time of death in the worms according to the methodAjaiyeoba et al.Results: Itshowed that all the concentrations of Allophylus serratus had anthelmintic activity according to the dose dependant manner. Efficacy of the test samples were found to be decreased the time for paralysis & death of the worms with increased dose. The test samples were compared with the standard drug Albendazole (20mg/ml) showed that the test concentration of 400mg/ml had equalled potent with standard drug.Conclusion: The extract of 400mg/ml dose had potent anthelmintic activity than other extracts like 100mg/ml, 200mg/ml. On phytochemical screening of Allophylus serratus extract with ethanol was found to be phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tri-terpenoids, steroids and Glycosides. The study concluded that Allophylus serratus used as an anthelmentic drug in future.
The study was designed to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Alocasia indica Linn. (Araceae) and its two different fractions namely petroleum ether and ethyl acetate using Pheretima posthuma as test Worms. Different concentrations (10, 25 and 50 mg/ml) of hydroalcoholic extract and its various fractions were tested in the bioassay, from which time of paralysis (P) and time of death (D) of the worms were determined. Piperazine citrate was used as standard reference and distilled water as control. All the extracts were found not only to paralyze (Vermifuge) but also to kill the earthworms (Vermicidal). The hydroalcoholic extract was found to be more effective to execute the earthworm at higher concentration of 50 mg/ml, as compared to standard reference Piperazine citrate. Further, systematic scientific studies are essential for screening different activities.
Plants have been one of the important sources of medicines even since the damn of human civilization. Alpinia galanga L. (Family-Zingiberaceae). It is well known official drug thought the country as a holistic gift of nature for medicinal, culinary and cosmetic use. It has been found to possess various therapeutic activities, viz. anti-inflammatory, analgesic ant allergic, antifungal, ant diabetic, antibacterial, antiulcer, immunostimulating, anti-cancer, anti -oxidant, anti-amoebic, anti-dermatophytic and many more. For different concentrations (100, 60, 40, 20mg/ml) of each extract(aqueous extract) were studied in activity which involved the determination time of paralysis (vermifuge) and time death ( vermicidal) of the worms Piperazine adipate in the same concentration as the extract was included as standard reference and normal saline (0.9%NaCl) water with 1% CMC as control. The extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at a concentration of 100mg/ml in this case it was found that aqueous extract gives better activity compared to the standard. Results showed that Alpinia galanga rhizome extract gives better anthelmintic activity at all the tested doses.
Alstonia Boonei De Wild
Alstonia booneiDe Wild ethanol extracts of the stem bark (ABSB) and root bark (ABRB)were evaluated for possible anthelmintic activity. Three different concentrations of each extract (50, 100 and 150mg/ml) were evaluated for in vitroanthelmintic activity by determining the effects of the extracts on the paralysis and death times of Pheretima posthuma.Mebendazole(MBZ) 15 mg/mg was used as reference anthelmintic. ABSB and ABRBdemonstrated a concentration dependent anthelmintic activity with a reduction in paralytic anddeath times upon increase in theconcentrationof the extracts. ABSB revealedbetteranthelmintic activity than ABRBat all concentrations tested. ABSB also revealeda significant paralytic time (p<0.01) at 150mg/mlwith reference to MBZ. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence ofalkaloids, tannins, flavonoids saponins and glycosides in ABSBand ABRB.
Water extracts of whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus Linn was evaluated for anthelmintic on adult Indian earthworms (Pheritima posthuma) and Tubifex tubifex ,using piperazine citrate as reference standard. Aqueous extract showed anthelmintic activity in dose‐dependent manner giving shortest time of paralysis(P) and death(D) with 50 mg/ml concentration, for both the worms. Extract shows more potent activity (15 mg/ml) against Tubifex tubifex. Extract shows more potent activity (15 mg/ml) against Tubifex tubifex . The petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. were tested for anti‐inflammatory activity at the dosed of 250,500 and 750 mg/kg body weight.The extract produced dose dependent and significant inhibition of carrageenan induced paw oedema. The exhibited anti‐inflammatory activity of this plant was comparable with the standard drug Ibuprofen.The presence of steroids, alkaloids & flavonoids in the extracts may be contributory to its antiinflammatory activity.
Amorphophallus Paeoniifolius Tuber
Methanolic extracts of the tuber of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius were investigated for its antihelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex. The extract with the concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml were tested in the bioassay, which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. The extract exhibited significant antihelmintic activity at highest concentration of 100 mg/ml. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) was included as standard reference and distilled water as control. The extracts were found not only to paralyze (Vermifuge) but also to kill the earthworms (Vermicidal).
The present study aimed at determining elemental composition, anticariogenic, insecticidal and anthelmintic efficacy of Anaphalis lawii (Hook.f) Gamble (Asteraceae). Elemental composition of powdered leaf material was estimated by ICP-OES technique after microwave digestion. Anticariogenic activity of methanol extract was tested against 13 clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans by Agar well diffusion method. insecticidal activity of methanol extract in terms of larvicidal efficacy was tested against second instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. anthelmintic activity of methanol extract was determined using adult Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. The contents of potassium and iron were high among macro and microelements respectively. The leaf extract showed dose dependent inhibition of all S. mutans. The larvicidal effect of the extract was found to be dose dependent and the mortality of larvae of A. aegypti was recorded as 100% at 1.5mg/ml and higher concentrations of extract. The leaf extract resulted in paralysis and death of worms in a dose dependent manner. The A. lawii leaf can be used as a source of various elements which play key role in the normal physiology of an individual. The plant can be used to treat dental caries and Worm infections and to control insect vectors. The bioactivities of extract observed in this study might be related to the presence of phytochemicals. Further studies concerning fractionation of leaf extract and bioactivities of fractions are to be carried out.
Leaves of Annona reticulata L. (Annonaceae) were dried, powdered and extracted using ethanol and further fractionated using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. anthelmintic activity of these various fractions was evaluated on adult Indian earthworms Pherentima posthuma. Results showed that ethanol extract took less time to cause paralysis of the earthworms. In order to pinpoint the active constituent the ethanol fraction was further fractionated using column chromatography to yield fraction 1, 2, and 3 and again screened for activity. Results showed that the fraction 2 is most potent followed by fraction 3 and then fraction 1. It can be concluded that anthelmintic activity of the leaves of A. reticulata is due to compound present in fraction 2 of ethanol fraction of total ethanol extract.
The Papaveraceae, informally known as the poppy family, are an ethnopharmacologically important family of 44 genera and approximately 760 species of flowering plants. The present work offers a review addressing the detailed chemistry and pharmacology of Argemone mexicana L. regarded as one of the most significant plant species in traditional system of medicine. The plant is used in different parts of the world for the treatment of several ailments including tumors, warts, skin diseases, inflammations, rheumatism, jaundice, leprosy, microbial infections, and malaria. Interestingly, the plant is the source of a diverse kind of chemical constituents although alkaloids are mostly abundant. Beyond pharmaceutical efficacies, certain plant parts also show toxic effects as well. Hence, an up-to-date information on the chemical and pharmacological knowledge on this plant may be helpful to guide researchers anticipating to undertake further investigations in these directions. The present review covers literature up to 2012 and enlists 111 references.
Arisaema franchetianum and Arisaema lobatum are two perennial plants native to China. Arisaema franchetianum is universally used to promote the subsidence of induration and swelling, quicken blood and relieve pains, and kill intestinal parasites in humans and animals. Arisaema lobatum is used to treat malaria, intestinal parasites, and snake and insect bites in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to determine the composition of the essential oils from Arisaema franchetianum and Arisaema lobatum and evaluate the anthelmintic effect against Haemonchus contortus.
The present study has been undertaken to screen the anthelmintic potential of aqueous root extracts of Aristolochia indica Linn. and A. tagala Cham. against adult Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma and round worms Ascaridia galli. Different concentrations of the extracts ranging from 2-8 mg/mL were screened. Piperazine citrate was used as reference standard. Extract of A. tagala was found to be more potent and effective at the dose level of 2 mg/mL compared to the extract of A. indica. Extracts showed dose dependant activity. The study reports that the plants A. indica and A. tagala roots possess potent anthelmintic properties.
The ethanol extract of seeds of Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. (ESAL) was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms (Pheretima posthuma), tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis) and roundworms (Ascaridia galli). Various concentrations (10-50 mg/ml) of seed extract was tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) was used as reference standard drug whereas DMF (Di-methyl formamide) as control. Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 50 mg/ml. The result shows that seed extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. The anthelmintic activity of ethanol extract of the seeds of Artocarpus lakoocha has therefore been demonstrated for the first time.
This study involves phytochemical screening and comparision of theIn-Vitro anthelmintic Activity of Asparagus racemosus and Cucurbitamaxima using adult Indian earthworm model.Methods : phytochemical investigation was done and anthelminthic assay was evaluated for both ethanolicand aqueous extracts of 100 and 200 mg /ml of both Asparagus racemosus and Cucurbita maxima by comparing parameters of time taken for paralysis andtime taken for death.Key findings : anthelminthic assay revealed that extracts of both plants showed significant anthelminthic activity .Dose dependentactivity was observed in Ethanolic and Aqueous extracts of both plants but Ethanolic root extract of Asparagus racemosus shows activity comparable withthat of standard Albendazole ( 20 mg / ml ) and better activity in comparision with cucurbita maxima.Conclusions : The results revealed that anthelminticactivity of Asparagus racemosus Ethanolic root extract was closely related to the Albendazole.
Asuro (Justicia Adhatoda)
The anthelmintic activity of Justicia adhatoda leaves was evaluated against the gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) of goats through fecal egg count reduction test in vivo & egg hatch inhibition test in vitro from July 2013 to October 2013. For in vivo experiment, goats were randomly divided into five treatment groups. Among five treatment groups, positive and negative control group received Albendazole (ABZ) and No Treatment (NT) respectively; remaining three groups received different doses of methanol extract of J. adhatoda as T1 : 100 mg/kg body weight, T2 : 150 mg/kg body weight and T3 : 200 mg/kg body weight. Fecal egg count reduction (FECR) was calculated on day 0, 7, 14 & 21. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software, Least significant Difference (LSD), least square procedure using Harvey (1990) and DMRT. The in vivo result indicated that T2 and T3 reduced EPG significantly (p<0.01) compared to NT on day 14 and day 21 post treatment. The highest reduction rate on FEC of treated group was 58.6% on 21 day post treatment at dose rate 200mg/kg body weight. For in vitro test different doses of methanol extract (50 mg/ml, 25 mg/ml, 12 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) was used. In vitro test result indicated that egg hatch inhibition at 50 mg/ml was highest among the different treatment of methanol extract of J. adhatoda. Methanol extract showed dose dependent inhibition in in vitro egg hatch assay. The findings suggested that J. adhatoda leaf could be a promising alternative to commercially available synthetic anthelmintics. However further investigations to identify the biologically active compound to establish the dose rate and to understand the pharmacokinetics and level of toxicity are required to establish this plant as herbal anthelmintics.
Growing drug resistance of microorganisms and adverse result of antibiotic usage have led to the search for alternative medicines from nature. Many plants have been exploited to cure infectious diseases from time immemorial. The current investigation deals with the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity, preliminary phytochemical screening and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) analysis of Averrhoa carambola L. leaf extracts. The antimicrobial activity was done by agar well diffusion method. Preliminary phytochemical screening was done by standard method. Plant extracts were found active against all the bacteria. Aqueous extract of A. carambola leaves showed higher antibacterial activity as compared with methanol and petroleum ether extract at the concentration of 25 mg/ml. Highest antibacterial activity was exhibited by the aqueous extract against Salmonella typhi (29.23±0.02 mm). The highest antifungal potential was exhibited by the methanol extract against Candida krusei (21.09±0.08 mm). Plant extracts were observed to be active against all the fungal pathogens except Aspergillus niger. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using serial dilution method. The preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins and polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, phytosterol, proteins and amino acids, carbohydrates, glycosides etc. while saponins was absent in both the extract. The petroleum ether and methanolic extracts were subjected to TLC study and the Rf value of different spots was observed in various solvent systems. The outcomes of the present study indicate that A. carambola leaf is endowed with potential antimicrobial activity and hold promise for development of pharmaceuticals and antimicrobial agents in future.
Baccaurea ramiflora Lour., syn. Baccaurea sapida (Roxb.) Muell. Arg. known as Burmese grapes belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae and is native to Southeast Asia. The observance on Baccaurea ramiflora leads that this plant is utilized as an antichloristic and anodyne against rheumatoid arthritis, abscesses, cellulitis and treat injuries. This plant also has anti-diarrheal, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, neuro-pharmacological, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate anthelmintic and insecticidal activities of different extract of Baccaurea ramiflora. For anthelmintic activity, Pheretima posthuma was selected as test animal while 25, 50, 100 mg/ml concentrations of samples weretested in the bioassay, from which time of paralysis and time of death of worms were estimated. Evaluation of insecticidal activity was performed against Sitophilus oryzae to calculate the mortality rate. Extracts of MEE, EE, ACE, CHE, PEE, and NHE were for the activity determination. In the anthelmintic study, extract exhibited its activity in a dose-dependent manner showing higher the concentration, faster the effect. Extract of EE, PEE, CHE and MEE in case of 100 mg/ml concentration exhibited its paralytic effect followed by death within a short period among which ACE extract gave the best result which only took approx. 22.33 min to show paralytic effect and 33 min for death occurrence. In the insecticidal activity, all extracts showed potent activity with 100% mortality of rice insects Sitophilus oryzae at 80 mg/ml concentration in 24 h, proving the activity also followed a dose-dependent pattern. 80% mortality rate observed in case of 80 mg/ml concentration of ACE extract in 12 h whereas MEE, CHE, and NHE extracts showed 60% and PEE showed 70% mortality rate in treated rice insects. The present study shows that all the extracts of Baccaurea ramiflora are found to possess anthelmintic and insecticidal activities
Baliospermum Montanum Muell
Alcohol and aqueous extracts from the roots of Baliospermum montanum Muell. Arg were investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma and Ascardia galli. Various concentrations (10-100 mg/ml) of each extract were tested in the bioassay, which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. Both the extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 100 mg/ml. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) was included as standard reference and distilled water as control.
Haemonchus contortus is a major problem in small ruminants in Indonesia. The frequent use of the anthelmintic drugs has given rise to drug-resistant populations which increase the need for new anthelminthic compounds, particularly from endemic plants. This study evaluated the in vitro effects of Biophytum petersianum crude aqueous extract (BAE) as an anthelmintic compound against H. contortus adult Worm isolated from goats.
The present study was designed to explore the anthelmintic activity of different extracts of leaves of Bougainvillea glabra using petroleum ether, ethyl acetate methanol and water as solvents. Various concentrations (25 and 50mg/ml) of all the extracts were tested, which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. It was compared with Albendazole as standard reference and normal saline as control. The study indicated the potential usefulness of Manihot esculenta against earthworm infections.
anthelmintic properties of the stem bark extract and compounds isolated from Bridelia ferruginae were investigated. In relation to the traditional use of B. ferruginae against gastro-intestinal infections, bioactivity-guided fractionations of the CHCl3- and CH2Cl2- soluble fractions of the 80% MeOH extract from the stem barks of B. ferruginae yielded two known triterpenoids: betuline (1), glucoside of betulinic acid (2) and other two known flavonoids: quercetin (3) and kaempferol (4). Structures of compounds 1 to 4 were elucidated by spectroscopic studies and comparison with related compounds in literature. The time of paralysis and death of the parasitic worms: Fasciola gigantical (liver fluke), Taenia solium (tape Worm) and Pheritima posthuma (earthworm, Annelid) were determined at 25, 50, 80 and 100 mg/ml. The stem barks extract of B. ferruginae and isolated compounds demonstrated concentration-dependent anthelmintic potencies against parasitic worms assayed. Structural-activity relationship is explained.
The crude Pet. Ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts ofCaesalpinia pulcherrima (Caesalpiniaceae) leafwere investigated for in-vitro anthelmintic activity on the Indian adult earthworms Eisenia foetida. The various concentrations(20, 40, 60mg/ml) of extracts were tested in-vitro for anthelmintic potency by determination of time of paralysis and time ofdeath of Worm. The leaf extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima exhibited a dose dependant inhibition of spontaneous motility(Paralysis) of earthworms. Piperazine citrate (10mg/ml) was used as standard drug and distilled water containing 2% tween 80was as control. All the extracts were found to be exhibited dose dependent anthelmintic activity.The decreasing order ofactivity of extracts was ethyl acetate, ethanol, dichloromethane and petroleum ether extracts. Thus the present studydemonstrates that the leaf of Caesalpinia pulcherrima could be categorized under anthelmintic herbal drugs and could beused as a potent key ingredient of herbal formulation.
Modern synthetic medicines are very effective in curing diseases but also cause a number of side effects. parasites are of concern to
the medical field for centuries and the helminthes considered causing considerable problems for human beings and animals. To investigate the anthelmintic activity of Cajanus cajan. Dried powder was taken and subjected to successive extraction with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water in soxhlet apparatus. The anthelmintic activity was evaluated on adult Indian earthworm pheritima posthuma due to its anatomical and physiological resemblance with the intestinal roundWorm parasites of human beings. The earthworms were divided in nine groups, each group consisting of six earthworms of approximately equal size were released into 50 ml of the extract. Albendazole using as a standard drug, both alcoholic and aqueous extracts has shown significant anthelmintic activity compared to standard drug albendazole. The data reveals that the aqueous extract shown anthelmintic activity for paralyzing as well as death of Indian earthworm pheritima posthuma at 5mg concentration is of long duration of time, whereas the ethanolic extract showed paralysis and death at similar concentration in short time duration. The leaves of Cajanus Cajan Linn. Ethanolic extract has given potent anthelmintic activity as compared to standard drug, thus it is evident that leaves of this plant of daily use is useful for anthelmintic activity and it is concluded that further research is possible for finding active compound responsible for this activity.
The in vitro anthelmintic evaluation of the crude extracts and solvent partitions on Pheretima post-huma and Ascarissuum (eggs and L2 stage) respectively showed significant results at the same concentration (10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/ml). This study provides a clear evidence for usage of Mucuna pruriens and Canarium schweinfurthii as an anthelmintic. The most potent ovicidal partition of C. schweinfurthii (Engl) leaves and bark and leaves of M. pruriens (DC) is hexane (100.00 ± 0.33), chloroform (98.20 ± 0.12) and chloroform (98.70 ± 0.88) partitioned crude respectively at 80 mg/ml while the most potent larvicidal partition is hexane (0.06%), chloroform (0.1%) and chloroform (0.2%). The active compounds are predominantly in the non-polar solvent which supports the te-gumental diffusing activity of the compounds.
Capparis spinosa is cultivated for several proprieties and the different parts of the plant (flower buds, fruits, leaf and seeds) have been employed in drugs, foods and cosmetics. This study aimed to explore the antioxidant potential effect and to assess the anthelmintic efficacy of an aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa. In vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts from the fresh leaves and flower buds of C. spinosa was measured by determining free radical-scavenging activity against DPPH and ABTS radical cations. In vitro anthelmintic activities against eggs and adult worms of Haemonchus contortus from sheep were investigated in comparison to albendazole. DPPH and ABTS activities of both aqueous extracts increased in a dose dependent manner. The IC50 values of aqueous extracts from fresh leaves, flowers buds and ascorbic acid in the DPPH radical scavenging assay were 101.40; 70.40 and 57.56 μg/ml, respectively. The IC50 values of aqueous extracts fresh leaves, flowers buds and ascorbic acid in the ABTS radical scavenging assay were 110; 87.89 and 58.17 μg/ml, respectively. Both plant extracts showed ovicidal activity at all tested concentrations. The aqueous extract from flower buds (IC50 = 2.76 mg/ml) showed higher inhibitory effects (P < 0.05) than aqueous extract from leaves (IC50 = 8.54 mg/ml) in the egg hatching assay. The aqueous extract from flower buds inhibited more worms than the aqueous extract from leaves at all tested concentrations. After 6 h of exposure, the highest tested concentrations of aqueous extracts from flower buds and leaves induced 100 and 41.66% inhibition of motility, respectively. These results show for the first time that C. spinosa possesses in vitro anthelmintic properties which may be related to its high content of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and tannins.
The aim of this present study is to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of leaves extracts of Carica papaya using Paramphistomum cervi and Haemonchus contortus as the test worms. A range of concentrations (100, 50 and 25%) of ethanolic extracts of C. papaya were tested to assay the procedure. This is mainly applied for the determination of time of death (D) and time of paralysis (P) of the tested worms. After the analysis, it was shown that for the H. contortus at 100% concentration, the paralysis occurred within the shortest time (P=24.5 min) and death came at the lowest possible time (D=56 min). The time of death and paralysis increased at 50% (D=64 min and P=28 min) and 25% concentration (D=74 min and P=34 min), respectively compared to the Piperazine citrate (P= 24 min and D= 54) at concentration of 10 mg/ml. Here, distilled water is as a control solution. The results of this study revealed that the ethanolic extracts of the leaves of the C. papaya expressed a demonstrated paralysis significantly, and also responsible for the death of P. cervi and H. contortus especially at the higher concentration (100%) compared to the standard reference of Piperazine citrate. Therefore, from the results it is declared that the ethanolic extracts of the leaves of C. papaya showed a great anthelmintic activity against P. cervi and H. contortus worms. Hence, the present research work signifies that the leaf of C. papaya has a major anthelmintic activity and also can be used as a potent drug for its low cost and availability.
This paper describes in-vivo anthelmintic activity of Carum copticum in comparison with levamisole. For in-vivo studies, the seeds of Carum copticum was administered as crude poweder (CP), Crude equeous extract (CAE) and crude methanol extract (CME) at graded doses (1,2 and 3 g kg -1 body weight (b.w.) to sheep naturally infected with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes. Maximum reduction (79.1%) in eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces was recorded on day 14 post treatment in sheep treated with Carum copticum CP at 3g kg -1 b.w. It was found that although, carum copticum seeds possesses anthelmintic activity against nematodes, it is not comparable with levamisole (99.2% reduction in EPG) at any of the doses tried in this study. However, increase in EPG reduction was noted with an increase in the dose of Carum copticum administered as CP, CAE and CME. The graded dose response suggested further studies on a larger number of animals on higher doses than those used in the current study.
There is increasing demand of herbal medicine worldwide, a great majority of medicinal plant were assessing for their efficacy. World health organization estimated that two billion of people harbor parasitic Worm infection. In view of this, attempts have been mad to study anthelmintic activity of Cassia fistula L fruit pulp and seeds. Both extracts were found not only paralyzed also killed the Pheritoma posthuma. The concentration of 100 mg/ml of extracts caused more significant paralysis as well as death of worms as compared to reference drug Piperazine citrate at dose of 10 mg/ml
Cassia Siamea Lamk
This study aimed to explore the phytochemical constituents and anthelmintic activities of four Cassia spp. leaves against Haemonchus contortus. Materials and methods: The extracts were prepared from four species of Cassia spp. (C. siamea, C. fistula, C. surattensis, and C. spectabilis). Phytochemical screening of the extract was done based on the Harborne method. Evaluation of the anthelmintic activities against H. contortus was done in vitro using infective larvae (L3) migration inhibition assay (LMIA). Measurement of larvae migrating was conducted through a nylon filter with a pore size of 20 μm. The doses of Cassia spp. extract implemented were 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/ml. Results: tannins, alkaloids, phenol hydroquinone, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids, and saponins were present in all the extracts, whereas alkaloids were absent in C. fistula. No triterpenoids were found in C. surattensis and C. spectabilis. Movement of H. contortus larvae was significantly inhibited after exposure to Cassia extracts at various dosage levels (p < 0.05). The test results using LMIA on L3H. contortus showed the lowest inhibition in the negative control. Among the species of Cassia, the C. surattensis (at 200 mg/ml) showed the highest (p < 0.05) inhibition level on the larvae. The latter result corresponded to the effect of albendazole. Conclusion: Compared to other Cassia spp., C. surattensis exhibited the highest inhibition against L3H. contortus. However, the inhibition effect of C. surattensis was still lower as compared to albendazole.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the anthelminthic activity of vegetable fixed oils, castor oil and mustard oil using adult earthworm, Pheritima posthuma. The oils were tested at different concentrations for the determination of paralysis time and death time of the earthworms. Albendazole is used as standard and it was found that castor oil and mustard oilshowed a better anthelminthic activity in comparison with the standard.
Chlorophytum Borivilianum Santapau
anthelmintic properties of saponin extract of Chlorophytum borivilianum sant. & Farnandez ( Liliaceae ) was studied . The present investigation was carried out to find out the effect of Root Extract of Chlorophytum borivilianum for its anthelmintic activity against the Indian adult earthworm , Eisenia foetida . Methanol , acetone , Chloroform and water were used to prepare the extract . In present study Methanolic extract ( ME ) , Crude saponin extract ( CSE ) and purified saponin fractions (PSF ) were taken as test solution . Piperazine citrate and 2% w/v gum acacia in distilled water were used as standard and control respectively. . Time of paralysis and time of death of the worms were considered as the parameters to assess the anthelmintic action. The result suggest that PSF found to be more active in compare to ME and CSE . The PSF confirmed paralysis as well as death of Eisenia foedita in less time as compare to piperazine citrate .
The preliminary phytochemical investigation was carried out on the crude extracts of the roots of Chloroxylon swietenia. The crude extracts were investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworms (Pheretima posthuma). Three concentrations (25, 50 and 100 mg/mL) of each extract were performed in activity, which involved the evaluation of paralysis and death period of the Worm. Chloroform and methanol extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 100 mg/mL. Piperzine citrate was selected as standard compound and Di-methyl formamide as control. The anthelmintic activity of Chloroform and methanol of roots of Chloroxylon swietenia has therefore been evaluated for the first time.
The present study reports the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous and hydro alcoholic extracts of Chromolaena odoarta leaves against adult Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma due to its anatomical and physiological resemblance with the intestinal roundWorm parasites of human beings. The aqueous extract was found to be more potent. The activities are comparable with the reference drug piperazine citrate.
The world health organization estimates that a staggering 2 billion people harbor parasitic Worm infections. parasitic worms also infect livestock and crops, affecting food production with a resultant economic impact. Development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of conventional anthelmintic drugs led to the evaluation of medicinal plants has an alternative source of anthelmintics. In view of this, an attempt has been made to study the anthelmintic activity of whole plant of Cissampelos pareira. The activity was checked by in-vitro anthelmintic model by using earthworm. In this current study, alcoholic and aqueous extract at various concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50, 100 mg/ml) were used and studied for paralysis and death of earthworm. All the extract was found not only to paralyze (Vermifuge) but also to kill the earthworm (vermicide). All the extract have significant activity but aqueous extract (100mg/ml) was found to be more effective to execute the earthworm. From this study it is concluded that Cissampelos pareira have potent anthelmintic activity and can be used in the treatment of helminthiasis.