featuring: Acanthopanacis Cortex • Acer Palmatum • Achyranthes Bidentata Root • Alisma Orientalis(Sam.)Juzep. • Allium Sativum Linn • Amygdalin • Angelica Sinensis (Oliv.)Diels • Antrodia Camphorata • Apium Nodiflorum • Aralia Echinocau • Areca Nut • Artemisia Capillaris • Artemisiae Vulgaris Folium • Astragali Radix • Astragalus Membranaceus Bunge • Astragalus Variabills • Atractylodes Macrocephala Koidz. • Auricularia Auricula • Bambusa Vulgaris • Biloba • Black Olive Hydroalcoholic • Black Seed (Nigella Sativa) • Black Tea • Bushen Huayu • Bushen Huoxue • Camellia Sinensis • Cassia Tora L. Seed • Caulis Lonicerae Japonicae • Cheongawongagam • Chicory Roots • Chondroitin Sulfate • Cibotium Barometz • Cicer Arietinum • Cimicifuga • Cimicifuga Racemosa • Cinnamomum Cassia • Cinnamon • Cissus Quadrangularis • Cissus Quadrangularis Linn • Cissus Quadrangularis Linn. • Cistanche Deserticola Ma • Cistanches Herba • Citrus Aurantifolia L. Cv. Swingle Peel • Citrus Sinensis L. Cv. Liucheng Peel • Cordyceps Sinensis • Corni Fructus • Cornus Officinalis • Cornus Officinalis Sieb. Et Zucc. • Cuscuta Chinensis • Cuscutae Semen • Cynomorium Songaricum Rupr. • Dalbergia Sissoo • Daucus Carota • Daucus Carota Var. Sativa Hoffm. • Deer Antler • Dendrobium Officinale Orchid • Dendropanax Morbifera • Dioscorea Spongiosa • Dried Plum • Drynariae Rhizoma • Du–Zhong–Wan Water • Elaeagnus Angustifolia Fruit • Eleaegnus Angustifolia Fruit • Eleutherococcus Senticosus Bark • Epimedii Herba • Epimedii Sagittatum • Epimedium • Epimedium Brevicornum Maxim • Eruca Sativa Leaves • Eucommia Leaf • Eucommia Ulmoides Leaf • Eurycoma Longifolia • Forsythiae Fructus • Gentiana Macrophylla Pall (Gentianaceae) • Ginkgo Biloba • Ginseng • Greek Thymus Vulgaris • Green Tea • Green Tomato • Hawthorn • Herba Epimedii/Fructus Ligustri Lucidi • Humulus Lupulus L. • Isopropanolic • Kudzu • Laminaria Japonica Aresch. • Lannea Acida A. Rich • Lepidium Meyenii Walp • Loquat • Lotus Seed And Leaves • Lycii Folium S • Lycii Fructus • Lycii Radicis Cortex • Lycium Barbarum • Magnoliae Flos • Marine Algae • Melon S • Milk Thistle • Monascus • Morinda Citrifolia L. Leaf • Morinda Officinalis How • Mornidae Radix S • Morus Alba • Mulberry • Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn • Notopterygium Incisum Ting Ex Ht Chang • Olive Oil • Oryza Sativa L. Japonica • Oyster • Panax Ginseng • Phyllostachys Edulis • Plastrum Testudinis • Polygonatum Sibiricum • Pomegranate Peel • Poncirus Trifoliata • Poria Cocos(Schw.)Wolf • Psidium Guajava Fruit • Psoralea Corylifolia • Psoralea Corylifolia Linn. • Pu-Erh Tea • Pueraria Lobata • Pumpkin Seed • Punica Granatum • Qianggu Soft • Quassinoid-Rich Eurycoma Longifolia • Radix Astragali • Radix Paeoniae Rubra (Unpeeled) • Red Yeast Rice • Rehmannia Glutinosa (Gaetn.) Libosch. Ex Fisch. Et Mey. • Rehmanniae Radix Preparata • Rhizoma Drynariae • Rosae Laevigatae • Rubiacordifoliain Ovariectomized • Rubus Coreanus S • Ruscus Aculeatus • Salvadora Persica Sticks • Salvia Miltiorrhiza • Sambucus Williamsii Hance • Sargassum Tenerrimum Algae • Saururus Chinensis • Schisandra Chinensis(Turcz.)Baill • Sea Cucumber • Siberian Ginseng • Sipatah-Patah • Soybean Sprouts • Spinacia Oleracea L. • Taiwanofungus Camphoratus • Thearubigins • Titrated Horsetail • Trachyrhamphus Swrratus • Tribulus Terrestris • Trifolium Medium L. • Triticum Aestivum Aqueous • Vigna Angularis • Yukmi-Jihwang-Tang-Jahage S • Yupingfeng • Zuoguiwan •
Osteoporosis and fragility fractures are a growing problem for our aging population with around 1 in 2 women and 1 in 5 men suffering from an osteoporotic fracture during their lifetime. Although there are established factors that can reduce the risk of fracture such as maintaining physical activity , ceasing smoking, and adequate vitamin D status, and intakes of calcium; dietary mechanisms are less well established. The relevance of the flavonoid group of bioactive compounds found in fruits and vegetables has been less investigated. Two human epidemiologic studies in women found positive associations between total dietary flavonoid intake and bone mineral density . Flavonoids may protect against bone loss by upregulating signaling pathways that promote osteoblast function, by reducing the effects of oxidative stress or chronic low-grade inflammation. The limitations of the existing research are explored in the manuscript and it is concluded that further research is needed, in this promising area.
Flavonoids are natural compounds derived from plants and some of them have been shown to inhibit osteoclastogenesis formation, implicating their potential use for the treatment of Osteoporosis. Conventionally, the screening of antiosteoclastic agents is a tedious process that requires visual counting of the number of osteoclasts produced. The purpose of this study was to establish an easier and faster method for screening the antiosteoclastogenic flavonoids by using an enzyme assay. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) is a marker enzyme of the osteoclastogenesis . Results obtained demonstrated that cellular TRAP activity tended to correlate with the number of osteoclasts formed. However, the secreted TRAP activity was actually responsible for the resorption activities of the functional osteoclasts. Consequently, the effectiveness of antiosteoclastogenic agents was screened for by assessing their inhibition on receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced TRAP secretion. The half-inhibitory concentrations of flavonoids on TRAP secretion were employed as indices to compare the effectiveness of various flavonoids. The effective flavonoids also exhibited similar inhibitory potencies in the pit-formation analysis. This protocol provides a rapid analysis to screen for effective antiosteoclastogenic agents.
Imbalance of bone homeostasis, with excessive bone resorption compared with bone formation, leads to the development of progressive osteopenia leading to lower bone resistance to load, with consequent pain and functional limitations. Phytochemicals with therapeutic and preventive effects against bone resorption have recently received increasing attention since they are potentially more suitable for long-term use than traditional therapeutic chemical compounds. In this systematic review of the literature of the past 5 years, comprehensive information is provided on flavonoids with potential antiresorption and pro-osteogenic effects . It aims to highlight the molecular mechanisms of these molecules, often epigenetic, and their possible pharmacological use, which is of great importance for the prevention and treatment of Osteoporosis (OP).
Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a deterioration of bone mass and bone quality that predisposes an individual to a higher risk of fragility fractures . Emerging evidence has shown that the risk for low bone mass and Osteoporosis-related fractures can be reduced by nutritional approaches aiming to improve bone microstructure, bone mineral density , and strength . Tea and its flavonoids, especially those of black tea and green tea, have been suggested to protect against bone loss and to reduce risk of fracture , due to tea‘s antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on the results of animal studies, moderate intake of tea has shown to benefit bone health as shown by mitigation of bone loss and microstructural deterioration as well as improvement of bone strength and quality. Epidemiological studies have reported positive, insignificant, and negative impacts on bone mineral density at multiple skeletal sites and risk of fracture in humans with habitual tea consumption. There are limited human clinical trials that objectively and quantitatively assessed tea consumption and bone efficacy using validated outcome measures in a population at high risk for Osteoporosis, along with safety monitoring approach. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of laboratory animal research, epidemiological observational studies, and clinical trials assessing the skeletal effects of tea and its active flavonoids, along with discussion of relevant future directions in translational research.
Osteoporosis, a common problem of older women in developed countries, is characterised by low bone mineral density or low bone mineral content, both measures of bone quantity. However, with Osteoporosis there is also a loss of bone micro-architecture–that is, a loss of bone quality. Dietary factors thought to be important in maintaining bone quantity include calcium, vitamin D, protein and salt. Trace minerals may be important in maintaining bone quality through their role as metallo-enzymes in the synthesis of collagen and other proteins that form the structure of bone . Other substances like flavonoids may also have a role in preventing Osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease of bone mass loss and deterioration of the bone structure leading to increased susceptibility to fracture , generally associated with risk factors that include hormonal imbalance, increased oxidative stress and chronic inflammation.
Nutritional factors and certain lifestyle reduce the risks of occurrence of Osteoporosis and are part of a number of national and international prevention recommendations. Recent reports based on molecular mechanisms of dietary polyphenols have highlighted the benefits in their prevention and treatment of Osteoporosis. Polyphenols can protect bone health through reduction of oxidative stress because they act as antioxidants, reduction of inflammation by proinflammatory signaling, modulation of osteoblastogenesis , osteoclastogenesis, and osteoimmunological action.
This review reports about some important bioactive polyphenol sources and describes their action against Osteoporosis based on in vitro and in vivo studies.
Background: Osteoporosis is a metabolic disease affecting the bone mineral density and thus compromise the strength of the bones. Disease prevention through diet is the objective of the study and discussion. Among the several nutrients investigated, the intake of phenols seems to influence bone mineral density by acting as free radical scavengers, preventing oxidation-induced damage to bone cells . In addition, the growing understanding of the bone remodelling process supports the theory that inflammation significantly contributes to the etiopathogenesis of Osteoporosis.
Methods: To provide an overview of current evidence on polyphenol-rich foods and Osteoporosis prevention we made a comprehensive review of the literature focusing on the state of art of the topic.
Results: Some polyphenol-rich foods, including olive oil, fruit and vegetable, tea and soy, seem to be beneficial for preventing Osteoporosis disease and its progression. The mechanism is still partly unknown and may involve different pathways which include inflammation and other disease reactions.
Conclusions: However, further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms regulating the molecular interaction between Osteoporosis incidence and progression and polyphenol-rich foods. The current evidence suggests that dietary intervention with polyphenol rich foods may be useful to prevent incidence and progression of this condition.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in degeneration of the matrix associated with bone and cartilage . Regulation of osteoclastogenesis activity is essential in the treatment of bone disease, including Osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Polyphenols in green tea, particularly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), inhibit MMPs expression and activity . However, the effects of the black tea polyphenol, theaflavin-3,3′-digallate (TFDG), on osteoclastogenesis and MMP activity are unknown. Therefore, we examined whether TFDG and EGCG affect MMP activity and osteoclastogenesis formation and differentiation in vitro. TFDG or EGCG (10 and 100 μM) was added to cultures of rat osteoclastogenesis precursors cells and mature osteoclasts. Numbers of multinucleated osteoclasts and actin rings decreased in polyphenol-treated cultures relative to control cultures. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were lower in TFDG- and EGCG-treated rat osteoclastogenesis precursor cells than in control cultures. MMP-9 mRNA levels declined significantly in TFDG-treated osteoclasts in comparison to control osteoclasts. TFDG and EGCG inhibited the formation and differentiation of osteoclasts via inhibition of MMPs. TFDG may suppress actin ring formation more effectively than EGCG. Thus, TFDG and EGCG may be suitable agents or lead compounds for the treatment of bone resorption diseases.
For the prevention and treatment of bone loss related diseases, focus has been put on naturally derived substances such as polyphenols. Based on human intervention studies, this review gives an overview of the effects of dietary significant polyphenols (flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and stilbenes) on bone turnover. Literature research was conducted using PubMed database and articles published between 01/01/2008 and 31/12/2018 were included (last entry: 19/02/2019). Randomized controlled trials using oral polyphenol supplementation, either of isolated polyphenols or polyphenols-rich foods with healthy subjects or study populations with bone disorders were enclosed. Twenty articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and the average study quality (mean Jadad score: 4.5) was above the pre-defined cut-off of 3.0. Evidence from these studies does not allow an explicit conclusion regarding the effects of dietary important polyphenols on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers. Differences in study population, habitual diet, lifestyle factors, applied polyphenols, used doses, and polyphenol bioavailability complicate the comparison of study outcomes.
During the past, a more comprehensive knowledge of mechanisms implicated in bone resorption processes has driven researchers to develop a compound library of many small molecules that specifically interfere with the genesis of osteoclastogenesis precursors cells . Natural compounds that suppress osteoclastogenesis commitment may have therapeutic value in treating pathologies associated with bone resorption like Osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, bone metastasis, and periodontal disease. The present review is focused on the current knowledge on the polyphenols derived from plants that could be efficacious in suppressing osteoclastogenesis differentiation and bone resorption.
bone loss during aging has become an increasing public health concern as average life expectancy has increased. One of the most prevalent forms of age-related bone disease today is Osteoporosis in which the body slows down bone formation and existing bone is increasingly being resorbed by the body to maintain the calcium balance. Some causes of this bone loss can be attributed to dysregulation of osteoblast and osteoclastogenesis activity mediated by increased oxidative stress through the aging process. Due to certain serious adverse effects of the currently available therapeutic agents that limit their efficacy, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has garnered interest as a natural means for the prevention of this debilitating disease. Natural antioxidant supplementation, a type of CAM, has been researched to aid in reducing bone loss caused by oxidative stress . Naturally occurring polyphenols, such as anthocyanins rich in berries, are known to have anti-oxidative properties. Several studies have been reviewed to determine the impact polyphenol intake—particularly that of berries—has on bone health. Studies reveal a positive association of high berry intake and higher bone mass, implicating berries as possible inexpensive alternatives in reducing the risk of age related bone loss.
Recent research has provided insights into dietary components that may optimise bone health and stimulate bone formation. Fruit and vegetable intake, as well as grains and other plant-derived food, have been linked to decreased risk of major chronic diseases including Osteoporosis. This effect has been partially attributed to the polyphenols found in these foods. Thus, it has been suggested that these compounds may provide desirable bone health benefits through an action on bone cell metabolism. The present review will focus on how some polyphenols can modulate osteoblast function and reports which cellular signalling pathways are potentially implicated. However, to date, despite numerous investigations, few studies have provided clear evidence that phenolic compounds can act on osteoblasts . Polyphenols cited in the present review seem to be able to modulate the expression of transcription factors such as runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) and Osterix, NF-κB and activator protein-1 (AP-1). It appears that polyphenols may act on cellular signalling such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), oestrogen receptor and osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (OPG/RANKL) and thus may affect osteoblast functions. However, it is also important to take in account the possible interaction of these compounds on osteoclastogenesis metabolism to better understand the positive correlation reported between the consumption of fruit and vegetables and bone mass.
The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of aqueous extract from Cortex acanthopanacis (CAE) on osteoporosis rats induced by ovariectomy (OVX) using aqueous extract from Folium Epimedii (FEE) as positive control agent. Three-month-old female rats that underwent OVX were treated with CAE. After 12 weeks, bone mineral density (BMD) and indices of bone histomorphometry of tibia were measured. Levels of protein and mRNA expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) in tibia were evaluated. In addition, the serum concentrations of osteocalcin (OC), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), calcitonin (CT), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined. Administration of CAE significantly prevented OVX-induced rats from gain of the body weight. treatment with CAE increased bone mass remarkably and showed a significant inhibitory effect on bone resorption by downregulating significantly the expression of RANKL in tibia of OVX rats. Meanwhile, treatment of CAE significantly reduced serum level of IL-1β and increased level of CT in OVX rats. This suggests that CAE has the potential to be used as an alternative therapeutic agent for postmenopausal osteoporosis.
osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease that causes bone weakness and fragility. Consuming bone -beneficial nutrients through diet can prevent and treat osteoporosis. Acer palmatum (Japanese maple) leaves are used to make tea, but there have been few reports of their health benefits, especially regarding bone homeostasis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of A. palmatum hot water extract (APE) on osteoclastogenesis ogenesis and osteoblastogenesis in cultured cells . APE suppressed the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated osteoclasts in RANKL induced RAW264.7 cells . Furthermore, APE facilitated Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition during osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells . High-performance liquid chromatography analysis was performed to investigate the effective components of APE, and four flavonoids orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin were identified with the LC-MS analysis. treatment with fractionated APE suppressed osteoclastogenesis ogenesis and facilitated osteoblastogenesis in cultured cells . These findings suggest that APE contains antiosteoporotic compounds; thus, APE might have health promoting effects that help prevent osteoporosis by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis ogenesis and facilitating osteoblastogenesis .
Achyranthes Bidentata Root
Aim: The objective of the present study was to systematically investigate the effects of Achyranthes bidentata root extract (ABRE) on postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Materials and methods: Eighty 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were used and randomly assigned into sham-operated group (SHAM) and five ovariectomy (OVX) subgroups, i.e. OVX with vehicle (OVX); OVX with 17 β-ethinylestradiol (E(2), 25 μg/kg/day); OVX with ABRE of graded doses (100, 300, or 500 mg/kg/day). Daily oral administration of ABRE or E(2) started on week 4 after OVX for 16 weeks. bone mass, bone turnover and strength were analyzed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), biochemical markers and three-point bending test. The trabecular bone microarchitecture was evaluated by microcomputed tomography (μCT).
Results: 16 weeks treatment of ABRE slowed down the body weight gain and prevented the loss of bone mass induced by the OVX. The prevention effect on bone loss was due to altering the rate of bone remodeling, which could be inferred from the decreased level of bone turnover markers, such as serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD). The changes of urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion provided the same evidence. The treatment could also enhance the bone strength and prevent the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture.
Conclusions: We conclude that 16 weeks of ABRE treatment improve bone biomechanical quality through modifications of bone mineral density (BMD), and trabecular microarchitecture without hyperplastic effect on uterus, and it might be a potential alternative medicine for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
The Liuwei Dihuang (LWDH), a wellknown classic traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of six herbs including Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. (family: Scrophulariaceae), Cornus officinalis Sieb. (family: Cornaceae), Dioscorea opposite Thunb. (family: Dioscoreaceae), Alisma orientale (G. Samuelsson) Juz (family: Alismataceae), Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf (family: Polyporaceae) and Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews (family: Paeoniaceae). It has been used clinically in the treatment of many types of diseases with signs of deficiency of Yin in the kidneys for more than 1000 years in China. The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of LWDH on canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in osteoporosis.
osteoporosis model was induced by ovariectomy (OVX) in 8-week-old female Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. After 12 weeks of treatment with LWDH by intragastric administration, the rats were put to death in batch. The changes of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (BGP) and estradiol (E2) in serum were determined, bone mineral density (BMD) and histomorphology of right femur were observed, biomechanics of lumbar vertebra were measured, and the expression of Lrp-5, β-catenin, Runx2, Osx involving the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were detected by RT-PCR. In addition, osteoblasts isolated from neonatal rat calvariae were used in this study to investigate the effects of LWDH on the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Cell proliferation and differentiation were observed by the MTT test, ALP activity and calcified nodules. The expression of Lrp-5, β-catenin, Runx2, Osx mRNA of cells were also detected. All the data were analyzed by SPSS 13.0.
Twelve weeks of treatment with LWDH could significantly decrease the level of ALP and BGP in serum, increase the BMD of femurs, and improve the biomechanical capabililty of vertebral body in maximum loading and elastic modulus. Concerning histomorphology, we found ordered arrangement of trabeculae, slightly thinning of trabeculae and none obvious slight fractures in femurs after twelve weeks of treatment with LWDH. In osteoblast , serum containing LWDH elicited significantly increase in cell viability (at day 6), alkaline phosphatase activity (at days 2, 4 and 6) and amount of calcified nodules. The expression of Lrp-5, β-catenin, Runx2 and Osx involved in the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were significantly up-regulated in the presence of LWDH both in vivo and in vitro experiment.
Our results suggest that Liuwei Dihuang could alleviate osteoporosis induced by ovariectomy, in part, through up-regulation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway of osteoblast.
Allium Sativum Linn
The effects of oil extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on different primary and secondary osteoporotic marker changes were tested in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. Experiments were performed on three different rat models: sham-operated control, ovariectomized and ovariectomized supplemented with garlic oil. In ovariectomized group, there has been a significant increase in different relative organ weights compared to sham-operated control, while the uterine weight was found to be decreased. Supplementation with oil extract of garlic could effectively reverse these changes. Also low bone densities that developed in the ovariectomized group were significantly recovered in the garlic oil supplemented group. In our study, the development of high rate of bone turnover and osteoporosis in the ovariectomized animals were confirmed by significant alteration of serum alkaline phosphatase activity , serum tartrate resistant acid phosphatase activity , urinary excretion of calcium , phosphate, hydroxyproline and urinary calcium to creatinine ratio, when compared with the sham-operated control group. Garlic oil extract supplementation, apart from its unique influence in lowering blood cholesterol, could also prevent ovariectomy-induced rise in all the above-mentioned marker changes. The results of this study emphasize that oil extract of garlic possibly has a positive role in suppressing ovariectomy-induced bone resorption.
chondrogenesis and subsequent osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs ) and angiogenesis at injured sites are crucial for bone fracture healing. Amygdalin, a cyanogenic glycoside compound derived from bitter apricot kernel, has been reported to inhibit IL-1β-induced chondrocyte degeneration and to stimulate blood circulation , suggesting a promising role of amygdalin in fracture healing. In this study, tibial fractures in C57BL/6 mice were treated with amygdalin. fracture calluses were then harvested and subjected to radiographic, histological, and biomechanical testing, as well as angiography and gene expression analyses to evaluate fracture healing. The results showed that amygdalin treatment promoted bone fracture healing. Further experiments using MSC-specific transforming growth factor- (TGF-) β receptor 2 conditional knockout (KO) mice (Tgfbr2Gli1-Cre) and C3H10 T1/2 murine mesenchymal progenitor cells showed that this effect was mediated through TGF-β/Smad signaling. We conclude that amygdalin could be used as an alternative treatment for bone fractures.
Angelica sinensis (Oliv.)Diels
Angelica sinensis root is one of the herbs most commonly used in China; it is also often included in dietary supplements for menopause in Europe and North America. In the present study, we examined the anti-osteoporotic effects of A. sinensis extract in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis as well as toxicity of the extract after repeated oral administration. The OVX rats were treated with 17β-estradiol (10 μg/kg i.p. once daily) or A. sinensis extract (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, p.o. once daily) for four weeks. The bone (femur) mineral density (BMD) of rats treated with the extract (300 mg/kg) was significantly higher than that of the OVX-control, reaching BMD of the estradiol group. Markers of bone turnover in osteoporosis , serum alkaline phosphatase, collagen type I C-telopeptide and osteocalcin, were significantly decreased in the extract group. The body and uterus weight and serum estradiol concentration were not affected, and no treatment -related toxicity was observed during extract administration in rats. The results obtained indicate that A. sinensis extract can prevent the OVX-induced bone loss in rats via estrogen-independent mechanism.
Antrodia camphorata has previously demonstrated the efficacy in treating cancer and anti-inflammation. In this study, we are the first to evaluate Antrodia camphorata alcohol extract (ACAE) for osteoporosis recovery in vitro with preosteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) and in vivo with an osteoporosis mouse model established in our previous studies, ovariectomized senescence accelerated mice (OVX-SAMP8). Our results demonstrated that ACAE treatment was slightly cytotoxic to preosteoblast at 25 μg/mL, by which the osteogenic gene expression (RUNX2, OPN, and OCN) was significantly upregulated with an increased ratio of OPG to RANKL, indicating maintenance of the bone matrix through inhibition of osteoclastogenesisic pathway. Additionally, evaluation by Alizarin Red S staining showed increased mineralization in ACAE-treated preosteoblasts. For in vivo study, our results indicated that ACAE inhibits bone loss and significantly increases percentage bone volume, trabecular bone number, and bone mineral density in OVX-SAMP8 mice treated with ACAE. Collectively, in vitro and in vivo results showed that ACAE could promote osteogenesis and prevent bone loss and should be considered an evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine for osteoporosis therapy through the maintenance of bone health.
The effect of Apium Nodiflorum in Experimental osteoporosis
treatment of osteoporosis remains a therapeutic challenge. The effect of Apium Nodiflorum extract on development of experimental osteoporosis , pain thresholds and carrageenan-induced inflammation has been studied in ovariectomized osteoporotic Wistar rats. After osteoporosis verification rats were randomized and received vehicle only, HPLC-standardized Apium extract (equal to 2.4 mg/kg Quercetin) or Genistein (2.5 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. To verify the effect of Apium on the development of osteoporosis , bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), bone histology and plasma levels of IL-6 and RANKL were measured 6 months after ovariectomy and 8 weeks after treatment with Apium extract or Genistein as comparator. Inflammatory hyperalgesia was induced by intraplantar injection of 1% Carrageenan. Apium extract and Genistein impeded the development of osteoporosis (significant differences were shown for BMC and BMD levels in drug vs. vehicle treated rats) and improved bone histology and histological score. Apium and Genistein decreased IL-6 level. Both treatments alleviate d mechanical hyperalgesia, decreased exudative reaction and lowered inflammatory pain threshold. The results suggested that Apium extract could be an alternative therapy for post-menopausal osteoporosis.
Objective: To investigate the influence of aqueous extract of Aralia echinocaulis Hand.-Mazz on the expression of fracture healing -ralated factor receptors.
Methods: Single factor model was set up in SD rat. Selecting 14 and 28 days in the experiment. Immunohistochemistry was employed to determine the expression of Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2 ), Fms-like tyrosine kinase (Flt-1) and Fetal licer kinase (Flk-1) at 14 and 28 days after model establishing.
Results: The expression of Flt-1 and Flk-1 at 14 days (the latter was more remarkable) were obviously promoted in High dose group of aqueous extract of Aralia echinocaulis Hand.-Mazz, and higher than that in normal group and model group. The expression of FGFR2 in the high dose group of Aralia echinocaulis Hand -Mazz was also promoted visibility, close to that in the compare group (traditional Chinese medicine ), but higher than than in the model group. There was no significant difference among them. At 28 days, the expression of FGFR2 , Flt-1 and Flk-1 in all groups decreased except normal group, and got higher expression in model groups than each control groups.
Conclusion: Aqueous extract of Aralia echinocaulis Hand.-Mazz can promote angiogenesis in fracture healing , improve the activity and aggregation of Fibroblasts , osteoblasts and chondrocytes . It also helps to quicken ossification in the cartilage and promote fracture healing .
Estrogen deficiency increases the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is a crucial pathogenic factor for osteoporosis. Areca nuts are rich in phenolics, which have high antioxidant activity . In the present study, an ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis mouse model was used to investigate the protective effects of areca nut extract (ANE) on bone loss and related processes. A total of 24 8-week-old female mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=8 per group): I Sham-operated control; II, bilateral OVX; and III, bilateral OVX + ANE. Group III were treated orally with ANE at a single dose of 300 mg/kg body weight daily for 6 months. ANE supplementation for 6 months improved trabecular bone microarchitecture and significantly increased bone mineral density in the distal femur (P<0.05) compared with Group II. Furthermore, serum levels of the osteoclastogenesis differentiation-inducing factors, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin were significantly increased and decreased , respectively (both P<0.05), in OVX mice and these effects were significantly inhibited by ANE treatment (both P<0.05). ANE supplementation also resulted in significantly decreased serum hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels compared with Group II, while the levels of glutathione and catalase activity were significantly increased (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). The current study indicated that the protective effects of ANE against bone loss were mediated, at least in part, via inhibition of the release of ROS and bone resorption. These results suggested that ANE could have therapeutic value in the treatment of osteoporosis.
bone is dynamic tissue that is constantly destroyed or resorbed by osteoclasts and then replaced by osteoblasts in physiological process referred to as bone remodeling. In this study, the protective effect of Artemisia capillaris extract (ACE) on osteoporosis was investigated using RANKL‐induced osteoclasts and ovariectomized rats. In animal study, The total of sixty 8 week‐old female Spraque‐Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham‐operated group and four ovariectomized (OVA) groups: OVA, OVA + 17β‐estradiol (E2, 50 μg/kg/day) and OVA + ACE (125 or 250 mg/kg/day). Daily oral administration of E2 or ACE began 3 weeks after surgery and lasted for 12 weeks. ACE inhibited the decrease in total BMD and BMC of the femur induced by OVA, which was accompanied by a significant reduction in bone remodeling. The bone turnover markers such as BALP, PICP, OPG, RANKL, TRAP, and ICTP were regulated by ACE treatment . In addition, the underlying mechanism of anti‐osteoporotic effect of ACE was studied using scoparone, its major bioactive compound. The TRAP and bone resorption activity were dose‐dependently by scoparone in RANKL‐induced osteoclastogenesis differentiation. The suppressive effect of scoparone on RANKL‐induced osteoclastogenesis differentiation was executed by down‐regulating ROS production through NADPH oxidase 1 and mitochondria and by scavenging generated ROS. In conclusion, the protective of ACE on osteoporosis can be accomplished by attenuating RANKL‐induced osteoclastogenesis differentiation and bone resorption activity . These results indicate that ACE may utilized as a therapeutic agent for the prevention of bone metabolism‐related diseases.
Artemisiae Vulgaris Folium
Objectives & Methods : The purpose of this study is to observe the effects of herbal-acupuncture with Artemisiae Vulgaris Folium extract(AaH-HA) at KI10(Eumgok) on osteoporosis in ovariectomized(OVX) ddy mice. We carried out several experimental items to analyze the changes in body weight, urine, weight, uterus index, tibial length, the ash bone weight, tibial BMD, serum ALP, serum osteocalcin, serum Ca, and the levels of Ca, P, Ca/P ratio in tibia, and we performed histological and histomorphological analysis as well. Results : 1. Herbal-acupuncture with AaH-HA at KI10 significantly inhibited the reduction phosphorus level in serum in ovariectomized mice. 2. Herbal-acupuncture with AaH-HA at KI10 significantly inhibited the reduction creatinine level in serum in ovariectomized mice. 3. Herbal-acupuncture with AaH-HA at KI10 significantly inhibited the increase of tibial osteoclastogenesis cells in ovariectomized mice. 4. Herbal-acupuncture with AaH-HA at KI10 significantly inhibited the reduction of TBV(trabecular bone volume) and TBT(trabecular bone thickness) in ovariectomized mice. 5. Herbal-acupuncture with AaH-HA at KI10 significantly inhibited the overgrowth of tibial growth plate length(GPL) in ovariectomized mice. Conclusions : In conclusion, our study suggested that Herbal-acupuncturing with AaH-HA at KI10 can be effective treatment for osteoporosis.
To investigate inhibitory effect of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats by regulating FoxO3a/Wnt2 signaling pathway.
Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) animal model was developed by excising the bilateral ovaries of rats. The model rats were administered with APS (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, 800 mg/kg) by intragastric administration once daily for 12 weeks. bone density , bone metabolism index and oxidative stress index were measured in all groups. Furthermore, the regulation of APS of FoxO3a / Wnt2 signaling pathway was observed.
APS has an estrogen-like effect , which can increase bone mass, lower serum ALP and BGP values, increase blood calcium content, and increase bone density of the femur and vertebrae in rats. At the same time, APS can increase the bone mineral content of the femur, increase the maximum stress , maximum load and elastic modulus of the ovariectomized rats, improve oxidative stress in rats by increasing the gene expression of β-catenin and Wnt2 mRNA and inhibiting the gene expression of FoxO3a mRNA.
Astragalus polysaccharide can effectively alleviate oxidative stress -mediated osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats, which may be related to its regulation of FoxO3a/Wnt2/β-catenin pathway.
Astragalus Membranaceus Bunge
Purpose: To investigate the anti-osteoporosis effect of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge. extract (AMBE) in experimental rats. Method: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups: control group, ovariectomy (OVX) with vehicle group, OVX with 17β-estradiol (E2, 25 µg/kg/day) group, and OVX with AMBE doses (60, 120 and 240 mg/kg/day) groups. Daily oral administration of AMBE or E2 was started 4 weeks after OVX and lasted for 16 weeks. The bone mineral density (BMD) of L4 vertebrae and right femurs was evaluated. The length of each femur was measured with a micrometer, and the center of diaphysis was determined. Three representative L4 vertebrae were selected to evaluate trabecular microarchitecture. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urinary calcium (U-Ca), urinary phosphorus (U-P), urinary creatinine (Cr) and osteocalcin (OC) levels were measured. Results: AMBE dose-dependently inhibited the bone mineral density (BMD) reduction of L4 vertebrae (0.27 ± 0.03 g/cm², p < 0.05) and femurs (0.23 ± 0.03 g/cm², p < 0.05) caused by OVX and prevented the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture (p < 0.05), which were accompanied by a significant decrease in skeletal remodeling (p < 0.05) as evidenced by the lower levels of bone turnover markers. A higher dosage of AMBE treatment (240 mg/kg/day) increased U-Ca/Cr (0.27 ± 0.03 mmol/mmol), ALP (137.23 ± 16.72 U/L), U-P/Cr (4.18 ± 0.27 mmol/mmol) and OC (8.47 ± 0.26 mmol/L) levels (both p < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that AMBE prevents OVX-induced osteoporosis in rats.
The effect of the mixture composed of the flavone of [Epimediem sagittatum and Rhizoma Drynariae] and the enthanol extract of Astragalus variabills Bunge onosteoporosis wasstudied by feeding the osteoporosis mice induced by retinoic acid with high,middle,low doses of the above mixture.Based on the experimental results,the concentration of serum ATP of high dose group was very markedly higher than that of the model group,while the concentrations of serum BGP,serum Ca2+ and the ratio of HOP/Cr were markedly lower than that of the model group.The results indicated that the above mixture possess potentially preventive and therapeutic function on osteoporosis mice induced by retinoic acid.
Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.
The rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala has been used mainly in Traditional Chinese medicine for invigorating the functions of the stomach and spleen. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of the 70% ethanol extract of the rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala (AMEE) on osteoclastogenesis differentiation. We found that AMEE inhibits osteoclastogenesis differentiation from its precursors induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), an essential cytokine required for osteoclastogenesis differentiation. AMEE attenuated RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathway, subsequently inhibiting the induction of osteoclastogenesis ogenic transcription factors, c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1. Consistent with the in vitro results, administration of AMEE protected RANKL-induced bone loss in mice. We also identified atractylenolide I and II as active constituents contributing to the anti-osteoclastogenesis ogenic effect of AMEE. Taken together, our results demonstrate that AMEE has a protective effect on bone loss via inhibiting osteoclastogenesis differentiation and suggest that AMEE may be useful in preventing and treating various bone diseases associated with excessive bone resorption.
osteoporosis is a common metabolic bone disease that is often seen in bedridden patients and astronauts. Long‐term bed rest and nonweight bearing tend to induce disuse osteoporosis. calcium supplements are commonly used to help treat disuse osteoporosis along with medications, most of which are calcium carbonate based, but they have poor absorption effects . In this study, we prepared a novel Auricularia auricula peptide–calcium complex (AP–Ca) and evaluated its protective effects on disuse osteoporosis. In vitro assays showed that AP–Ca significantly increased the contents of calcium (P < 0.05) and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (AKP; P < 0.05) of osteoblasts cultured in a two‐dimensional‐rotating wall vessel. Meanwhile, supplementation with AP–Ca also inhibited the production of pro‐inflammatory factors induced by the loss of stress , especially TNF‐α (P < 0.05). In vivo, a mouse tail suspension (TS) model was established, and the results showed that AP–Ca helped to improve bone mineral density , bone mineral content, and bone organic content in TS mice and effectively alleviate d the alteration of enzymes related to bone metabolism, including AKP (P < 0.05) and serum tartrate‐resistant acid phosphatase (P < 0.05), to avoid more serious bone loss induced by TS. Furthermore, we found that AP–Ca downregulated the bone resorption ‐associated pro‐inflammatory genes interleukin‐1 (IL‐1), tumor necrosis factor‐α, and IL‐6 by 59.53 ± 3.55%, 48.01 ± 5.68%, and 40.00 ± 5.89%, respectively (P < 0.05). In conclusion, AP–Ca showed potential to suppress bone loss induced by disuse and might be considered a new alternative to reduce the risk of disuse osteoporosis.
osteoporosis represents the most common metabolic bone disease. Bambusa vulgaris (Poaceae) is a plant with potential antiosteoporotic effects , due to its phytoestrogenic, antioxidative , and anti-inflammatory properties. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of aqueous and methanol extracts of B. vulgaris on osteoporosis in rats.
Adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal (n = 6) and ovariectomized (n = 42) groups. Twelve weeks after ovariectomy, animals were treated for 4 weeks as follows: distilled water (10 mL/kg, per os (p.o.)), 17β-estradiol (10 μg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)), soya oil (1 mL/kg, i.p.), aqueous or methanol extract of B. vulgaris (55 or 110 mg/kg, p.o.). All rats were weighed daily and sacrificed on day 29. Plasma was collected, and the uterus and femur were dissected out, weighed, and used for biochemical and histological measurements.
In the untreated ovariectomized females, a non-significant (p > 0.05) increase in body weight and a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in the uterine and bone weights were recorded. Ovariectomy also significantly (p < 0.001) lowered the bone calcium and phosphorus concentrations, and deteriorated the microarchitecture of the femur. Interestingly, B. vulgaris extracts significantly (p < 0.001) improved the bone calcium concentration and femur microarchitecture (increase in trabecular bone density , reorganization of the trabecular network, and increase in bone marrow) with estrogenic-like effects compared to 17β-estradiol.
These results suggest that B. vulgaris is a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of osteoporosis. The present findings further justify the ethno-medicinal claims of B. vulgaris.
osteoporosis is bone disorder that happens when too much bone is damaged by the body, causing too little bone or both. As a consequence, bones are brittle and may crack from dropping or sneezing or small bumps in extreme situations. Ginkgo biloba is a Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and commonly used for the treatment of various bone related disease. The current experimental study aimed to scrutinize the anti-osteoporosis effect of Ginkgo biloba and explore the possible mechanism of action.
The rats were divided into following groups; Control, osteoporosis , osteoporosis received ginkgo biloba (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) and rats were received the treatment after the surgery for 8 weeks. bone parameters, osteocalcin (OC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and cytokines were estimated. The expression of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF‑κB) were estimated.
Dose dependently treatment of ginkgo biloba extract significantly altered the bone parameters such as increase the number of trabecular bone , trabecular bone thickness, connectivity density , ration of BV/TV and decrease the trabecular separation. Ginkgo biloba extract decreased the serum level of ALP, OC, Ca and P at dose dependent manner. ginkgo biloba extract decreased the cytokines at dose dependent manner. Ginkgo biloba extract also reduced the expression of SIRT1 and NF-kB.
We can conclude that ginkgo biloba extract showed the anti-osteoporosis effect via activation of SIRT1-NF-kB pathway.
Black Olive Hydroalcoholic
A cocktail of many different antioxidants might be more effective than supplementation with a single molecule, and it closely resembles the natural environment in which active compounds were found. This is the first study well-grounded in stereological examination that showed that black olive extract effectively can ameliorate the quantitative changes of the bone structure and prevented bone loss in this osteoporosis animal model.
Introduction: The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effects of black olive extract consumption on treatment of ovariectomized (OVX) induced osteoporosis in rats. This is the first study well-grounded in stereological examination.
Methods: Ninety adult rats were allocated to control, sham-operated, OVX, and olive-supplemented OVX groups (received 250-, 500-, and 750-mg/kg body weight black olive hydroalcoholic extract orally) for 16 weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected, and plasma levels of calcium , phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were assayed. Then, the specimens from both the tibia and fifth lumbar vertebra (L5) bones were processed, and stereological analysis was performed.
Results: Administration of extract resulted in decrease of alkaline phosphatase level during the treatment . After treatment of OVX rats with three doses of extract, the total number of the osteocytes revealed an increment in 500- and 750-mg/kg treated groups in comparison to the OVX group. This increment was significant only in L5. Compared to the OVX group, a significant increase was observed in the number of osteoblast sin L5 vertebra in three doses of extract-treated groups. However, this increment in tibia was statistically significant only in 750-mg/kg black olive hydroalcoholic extract-treated group. Moreover, the number of osteoclastogenesis cells were significantly decreased in vertebra and tibia in the treated groups compared to the OVX group (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: Black olive hydroalcoholic extract effectively can ameliorate the quantitative changes of the bone structure and prevented bone loss in this osteoporosis animal model. Thus, it can be a promising candidate for treatment of accelerated bone loss especially in postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Black Seed (Nigella Sativa)
Background and the purpose of the study: Experimental studies have shown that Ns (Nigella sativa) seeds oil can increase bone formation and may have anabolic effects on bone loss. This study was conducted to investigate the beneficial impacts of the oil of Black seeds on bone turnover in osteoporotic postmenopausal women. Materials and methods: A placebo controlled pilot study was carried out on 15 postmenopausal osteoporotic women of 48-74 years old. In addition to calcium -D supplements (2 tablets per day) all participants were randomly received Ns extract (3ml, 0.05 ml/kg/day p .o.) or placebo for 3 months. In all subjects hematological tests were performed and hepatic enzymes, BUN, Cr, Ca, P and plasma bone formation and resorption markers including osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase (bone -ALP) and carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide (CTX) was determined before and after 12 weeks of treatment . Results: Twelve participants completed the entire 12 weeks study course of which 5 and 7 women were belonged to Ns and placebo groups respectively. Women in placebo group were significantly older than women in Ns group. There were not significant differences between BMIs, BMD results and plasma levels of bone marker in two groups at the baseline and plasma levels of bone markers between Ns and placebo group at the end of 12 weeks. Alterations from baseline in bone markers levels did not differ significantly between two groups. We did not observe any side effects due to Ns therapy. Conclusion: In this pilot study similar to the previous trial, we failed to show beneficial impact of Ns extract administration for a short time on bone turnover so we don’t suggest it for medicinal application in the osteoporosis condition. Long time duration studies with larger sample size and usage of a more tolerable dosage forms of Black seeds oil should be emphasized for further clarification of its useful anabolic effects on bone metabolism.
The adverse side effects of currently available anti-osteoporotic agents warrant the search for compounds with less toxic effects . In this study, we assessed the phytoestrogenic potentiality of whole aqueous extract of black tea (BTE) in a bilaterally oophorectomized rat model (2.5%, 1 ml/100 g body weight/day for 28 days). Although the supplementation was given for 28 days but, sign of revival of copulation period (estrous stage) from non-receptive diestrous stage was first noticed after 21 days of BTE supplementation in bilaterally oophorectomized rats. This was accompanied by a significant increase in serum estradiol level. To test whether this increase in serum estradiol level could have an influence upon the oophorectomy-induced damage of bone , we assessed marker parameters of bone resorption and osteoclastogenesisic activity (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase), collagen degradation (urinary hydroxyproline), bone loss (bone ash mineral content) and bone breaking strength (bone density ). Results indicated that increase in serum estradiol level after BTE supplementation could significantly diminish oophorectomy-induced decaying changes in bone . This study proposes that aqueous BTE may be assessed as a phytoestrogenic compound for prevention against estrogen deficiency-related osteoporotic damages.