Kidney Restoration Tonic
FEATURING: Abelmoschus Manihot (Linn.) Medicus (A. Manihot) • Achyranthes Bidentata Bl Extract • Aconitum Carmichaelii Debx Extract • Afzelin • Alisma Orientalis(Sam.)Juzep.Extract • Allium Tuberosum Extract • Aloin • Alpha-Lipoic Acid (Α-La) • Alpinia Oxyphylla Miq Extract • Anacardium Occidentale (Ao) Leaves • Arjunolic Acid • Arthrospira Platensis (Spirulina Platensis • Astragaloside Iv (Assingle Bondiv) • Astragalus Mongholicus Bunge Extract • Auricularia Auricula（L.Ex Hook.）Underw Extract • Baicalin • Carica Papaya L.Extract • Chestnuts Extract • Cinnamomum Cassia Presl Extract • Cirsimaritin • Cistanche Deserticola Ma Extract • Citrus Reticulata Blanco Extract • Cmnamomi Mmulus Extract • Cordycepin • Cordyceps Sinensis ( Berk. ) Sacc Extract • Cornus Officinalis Sieb. Et Zucc.Extract • Cortex Fraxini • Curculigo Orchioides Gaertn.Extract • Curcumin • Cuscuta Chinensis Lam.Extract • Cynomorium Songaricum Rupr Extract • Davallia Mariesii Moore Ex Bak.Extract • Dioscorea Oppositifolia L.Extract • Egcg • Epimedium Brevicornu Maxim Extract • Eucalyptus Globulus Ganoderma Lucidium • Eucommia Ulmoides Oliver Extract • Euryale Ferox Salisb. Ex Konig Et Sims Extract • Gallic Acid • Ganoderma Lucidium Ganoderma Lucidium • Gingerol • Glycine Max（L.）Merr.Extract • Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fisch.Extract • Hesperidin • Hydrangea Paniculata Extract • Hyperin • Icariin • Inonotus Obliquus • Isoorientin • Isorhamnetin • Juglans Regia L. Extract • Jujube Kernel Extract • Kaempferitrin • Kaempferitrin, The Main Flavonoid From Bauhinia Forficata • Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort Extract • Ligustrum Lucidum Ait Extract • Luteolin • Lycii Fructus Extract • Matricaria Chamomilla (Chamomile) • Metformin • Mori Fructus Extract • Morinda Officinalis How Extract • N-Acetylcysteine (Nac) • Notopterygium Incisum Ting Ex H. T. Chang Extract • Oleanolic Acid • Origanum Vulgare (Oregano) • Paeonia Lactiflora Pall Extract • Paeonia Suffruticosa Andr Peel Extract • Paeoniflorin • Peucedanum Praeruptorum Dunn Extract • Plantago Asiatica L. Extract • Polygonatum Odoratum(Mill.)Druce Extract • Polygonatum Sibiricum Delar. Ex Redoute Extract • Poria Cocos(Schw.)Wolf Extract • Portulaca Oleracea Extract • Psidium Guajava L Extract • Psoralea Corylifolia Linn.Extract • Purple Rice Extract • Quercetin • Quercitrin • Rehmannia Glutinosa (Gaetn.) Libosch. Ex Fisch. Et Mey Extract • Resveratrol • Rhamnetin • Rhoifolin • Rhus Chinensis Mill.Extract • Rosa Laevigata Michx.Extract • Rubus Idaeus L Extract • Rutin • Saposhnikovia Divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk．Extract • Semen Sesami Nigrum Extract • Sun Ginseng (Sg, Heat-Processed Panax Ginseng • Thiamine • Thymoquinone (Tq), The Active Constituent Of Nigella Sativa Oil • Ursolic Acid • Vaccinium Bracteatum Thunb.Extract • Vitis Labrusca L.) Leaf Extract • Xiaokeyinshui (Xkys) Formula • Zingerone • Zingiber Officinale Roscoe Extract • Ziziphus Jujuba Mill. Extract •
INGREDIENTS & SCIENCE:
Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) Medicus (A. manihot)
The results stated that Huangkui capsule significantly inhibited the elevation of Scr, BUN, UP, the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), phosphorylation-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK1/2), NADPH Oxidase 1, NADPH Oxidase 2 and NADPH Oxidase 4 in adenine-induced CRF rats. The main bioactive components of quercetin (QT), hyperoside (HY), isoquercitrin (IQT), gossypetin-8-O-β-D-glucuronide (GG) and quercetin-3′-O-glucoside (QG) at the dosage of 100 µM, like NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium, exhibited a significant effect on inhibiting the expression of α-SMA, p-ERK1/2, NADPH Oxidase 1, NADPH Oxidase 2 and NADPH Oxidase 4 in high glucose-induced HK-2 cells, especially GG.
These results demonstrated that Huangkui capsule and the flavonoids components prevent tubulointerstitial l fibrosis in CRF rat involvement in the action mechanism of inhibiting NADPH oxidase/ROS/ERK pathway .
Achyranthes bidentata Bl extract
Chemical analysis showed that the salt-processed Achyranthes contained more ginsenoside Ro and chikusetsusaponin Ⅳa than the raw Achyranthes, but there was no difference in the contents of β-ecdysterone, 25R-inokosterone, and 25S-inokosterone.in vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging showed a significant reduced inflammation in the AKI mice. Histological studies showed that the raw and salt-processed Achyranthes markedly decreased the inflammatory infiltration, swelling and vacuolar degeneration in Renal tissues and the Scr and BUN. Importantly, the raw and salt-processed Achyranthes extracts demonstrated different degrees of inhibition on the LPS-induced AKI, with salt-processed Achyranthes showing better inhibition. Results of flow cytometry showed a significant inhibition of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2, and promoted IL-10, along with reduced macrophages (CD45 + F4/80+), neutrophils (CD45+ Ly-6G+) and phagocytes. Furthermore, the extracts reduced the accumulation of ROS and apoptosis in the kidney, and also regulated the expression of apoptosis marker protein s TLR4, Bcl-2, Bax, cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved caspase 9 levels . Notably, they increased ERα, ERβ, and GPR30 in the Renal tissues of AKI mice and LPS non-treated mice. In the subsequent experiments, it was found that the raw and salt-processed Achyranthes extracts increased the uterine coefficient in sexually immature mice, improved the LPS-induced decrease in NRK52e cell viability, and reduced the apoptosis , which could be antagonized by ICI182, 780 (estrogen receptor-unspecific antagonist, Faslodex).
The Renal–protective effect of raw and salt-processed Achyranthes was exhibited through antiapoptotic and antioxidant mechanisms via an estrogen-like pathway , along with a modulation of the inflammatory response by regulating immune cells. Ginsenoside Ro and Chikusetsu saponin IVa were found to be the key factors to enhance the protective effect of salt-processed Achyranthes.
Aconitum carmichaelii Debx extract
Objectives: Identifying drugs with time-varying efficacy or toxicity, and understanding the underlying mechanisms would help to improve treatment efficacy and reduce adverse effects In this study, we uncovered that the therapeutic effect of Fuzi (the lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux) depended on the dosing time in mice with adenine-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD ).
Methods: The Fuzi efficacy was determined by biomarker measurements [i.e. plasma creatinine (CRE), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG)], as well as inflammation , fibrosis and histological analyses. Circadian regulation of Fuzi pharmacokinetics and efficacy was evaluated using brain and muscle Arnt-like protein -1 (Bmal1)-deficient (Bmal1-/-) mice.
Key findings: The Fuzi efficacy was higher when the drug was dosed at ZT10 and was lower when the drug was dosed at other times (ZT2, ZT6, ZT14, ZT18 and ZT22) according to measurements of plasma CRE, BUN and urinary NAG. Consistently, ZT10 (5 PM) dosing showed a stronger protective effect on the kidney (i.e. less extensive tubular injury ) as compared to ZT22 (5 AM) dosing. This was supported by lower levels of inflammatory and fibrotic factors (IL-1β, IL-6, Tnf-α, Ccl2, Tgfb1 and Col1a1) at ZT10 than at ZT22. Pharmacokinetic analyses showed that the area under the curve (AUC) values (reflective of systemic exposure) and Renal distribution of aconitine, hypaconitine and mesaconitine (three putative active constituents) for Fuzi dosing at ZT10 were significantly higher than those for herb dosing at ZT22, suggesting a role of circadian pharmacokinetics in Fuzi chronoefficacy. Drug efficacy studies confirmed that aconitine, hypaconitine and mesaconitine possessed a kidney-protecting effect . In addition, genetic knockout of Bmal1 in mice abolished the time-dependency of Fuzi pharmacokinetics and efficacy. This reinforced the existence of chronoefficacy for Fuzi and supported the role of circadian pharmacokinetics in Fuzi chronoefficacy.
Conclusions: The efficacy of Fuzi against CKD depends on the dosing time in mice, which is associated with circadian pharmacokinetics of the three main active constituents (i.e. aconitine, hypaconitine and mesaconitine). These findings highlight the relevance of dosing time in the therapeutic outcomes of herbal medicines.
Our previous study showed that kaempferitrin, the main flavonoid from Bauhinia forficata Link leaves, induces diuresis and saluresis when orally given to rats. Since afzelin (AFZ) and kaempferol (KFL) are active compounds from the biometabolism of kaempferitrin, the diuretic and Renal protective properties of these two compounds were evaluated. While the acute treatment with AFZ evoked a diuretic action associated with an increase in Cl– excretion and a Ca2+-sparing effect , KFL did not present any activity. The pretreatment with a muscarinic receptor blocker or with an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase fully avoided AFZ-induced diuresis. AFZ also induced a prolonged (7-day treatment) diuretic effect in normotensive (NTR) and hypertensive rats (SHR), with an increase of urinary Na+ and Cl– excretion, while it decreased the elimination of Ca2+. AFZ was able to decrease ROS and nitrite generation on kidney homogenates in comparison with the SHR group treated with the vehicle, as well as mitigated the changes in the Renal corpuscle region (glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule). Moreover, AFZ significantly reduced calcium oxalate crystal formation in urine , with inhibition rates of 41% for the NTR and 92% for the SHR group. Taken together, this study shows that AFZ exerts acute and prolonged diuretic effects plus protective Renal properties.
Pharmacological and UPLC-HDMS-based lipidomic approaches have been successfully developed to investigate lipid-lowering effects and tubular interstitial l fibrosis of AO on adenine-induced CKD rats. serum lipidomics revealed profound alterations in adenine-induced CKD rats, including serum levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, diglycerides, and triglycerides. pathway over-representation analysis showed that 30 metabolic pathways were associated with identified lipid species in adenine-induced CKD rats. These findings were associated with activation of NF-κB/Nfr2 and TGF-β/Smad, and pro-fibrotic signaling pathways . However, studies that focus on dose-response patterns of the underlying molecular mechanisms and clinical applications are still needed. In conclusion, we have identified the therapeutic effect of AO on CKD , and demonstrated a dual mechanism of action, including a lipid-lowering effect , and a tubular interstitial l fibrosis effect .
Allium tuberosum extract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the butanol fraction from Allium tuberosum (BFAT) in high fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ) induced diabetic nephropathy . Wistar rats were fed with HFD for 4 weeks and thereafter administered with 35 mg/kg STZ intraperitoneally. Diabetic rats were treated with BFAT (100 or 400 mg/kg) and metformin (150 mg/kg) for 40 days. After treatment, the blood, urine and kidney tissues were obtained for biochemical and histological analysis . BFAT markedly decreased blood glucose , serum creatinine , blood urea nitrogen and urinary albumin levels in diabetic rats. Furthermore, BFAT upregulated Renal antioxidant enzymes status (glutathione , superoxide dismutase and catalase ) and decreased lipid peroxidation product in diabetic rats as well as reduced the levels of Renal pro-inflammatory cytokines in diabetic rats. In addition, BFAT significantly decreased serum and Renal levels of triglyceride and cholesterol in the treated diabetic rats. These results revealed that A. tuberosum possesses attenuative effects against diabetic nephropathy .
Aloin is the major anthraquinone glycoside obtained from the Aloe species and exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. However, the Renal protective effects of aloin and underlying molecular mechanism remain unclear. This study was initiated to determine whether aloin could modulate Renal functional damage in a mouse model of sepsis and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. The potential of aloin treatment to reduce Renal damage induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery in mice was measured by assessment of serum creatinine , blood urea nitrogen (BUN), lipid peroxidation, total glutathione , glutathione peroxidase activity, catalase activity, and superoxide dismutase activity. Post-treatment with aloin resulted in a significant reduction in the deleterious Renal function s by CLP, such as elevated BUN, creatinine , and urine protein . Moreover, aloin inhibited nuclear factor-κB activation and reduced the induction of nitric oxide synthase and excessive production of nitric acid. Aloin treatment also reduced the plasma levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, reduced lethality due to CLP-induced sepsis, increased lipid peroxidation, and markedly enhanced the antioxidant defense system by restoring the levels of superoxide dismutase , glutathione peroxidase , and catalase in kidney tissues. Our study suggested that aloin protects mice against sepsis-triggered Renal injury .
alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA)
The potential protective role of alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity was investigated in rats. Pretreatment of rats with α-LA (100 mg/kg) orally protected markedly against hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by an acute oral toxic dose of APAP (2.5 g/kg) as assessed by biochemical measurements and by histopathological examination. None of α-LA pretreated animals died by the acute toxic dose of APAP. Concomitantly, APAP-induced profound elevation of nitric oxide (NO) production and oxidative stress , as evidenced by increasing of lipid peroxidation level, reducing of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and depleting of intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) level in liver and kidney, were suppressed by pretreatment with α-LA. Similarly, daily treatment of rats with a smaller dose of α-LA (25 mg/kg) concurrently with a smaller toxic dose of APAP (750 mg/kg) for 1 week protected against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. This treatment also completely prevented APAP-induced mortality and markedly inhibited APAP-induced NO overproduction and oxidative stress in hepatic and Renal tissues. These results provide evidence that inhibition of NO overproduction and maintenance of intracellular antioxidant status may play a pivotal role in the protective effects of α-LA against APAP-induced hepatic and Renal damage .
Alpinia oxyphylla Miq extract
Abnormal Renal metabolism is closely related to the development of chronic kidney disease. It is well known that Renal inflammation plays an important role in the occurrence and development of tubulointerstitial l damage in the Renal tubules. The purpose of the experiment was to observe the bioactivity of Alpina oxyphylla extract (AOE) on Renal injury in diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ).
Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five group (n = 6): (1) intact control (non-diabetic, ND); (2) intact diabetic (STZ), (3) diabetic rats treated with gliclazide 5 mg/kg (STZ-gli), (4) diabetic rats treated with AOE 400 mg/kg (AOE 400), (5) diabetic rats treated with AOE 800 mg/kg (AOE 800). The diabetic nephropathy rat model was established by single intraperitoneal injected 50 mg/kg STZ. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and body weight was observed at 1、3、6 weeks. After 6 weeks, the Renal function parameters of five groups and 24 h urinary protein were detected. expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1 ) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) were assessed by Western Blot.
The STZ group showed hyperglycemia, protein uria, Renal function damage , and the levels of 24 h urinary protein , fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the STZ group increased significantly compared with the ND group. The expression of TGF-β1 in STZ group was increase (p < 0.01), and the expression of MyD88 was significantly lower than in ND group (p < 0.05). The treatment of DN rats with AOE attenuated DN-associated in the serum biochemical index and the expression of TGF-β1 .
AOE can effective ly protect kidney tissues of diabetic nephropathy , and probably through regulating level of TGF-β1 /MyD88.
Anacardium occidentale (AO) leaves
Earlier studies from our laboratory have indicated hypoglycaemic action of Anacardium occidentale (AO) leaves in experimental type 1 diabetes. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats had been shown to be associated with functional and/or morphological changes in the kidney. Therefore, in the present investigation, wecarried out studies on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes in rats chronically treated withAnacardium occidentale on the functional and histological alterations of kidneys Albino rats were divided into 7 groups (n = 5) receiving graded doses of hexane extract of Anacardium occidentale leaf by gavage, (150 and 300 mg/kg/day) and insulin (5 IU/kg). Renal ultrastructure was studied by measuring: diameter of Bowman’s capsule, distribution and total area occupied by glomerular capillaries, PAS positive structures. AO at the dose of 300 mg/kg/day, showed significant reduction (P < 0.05) of blood glucose level, total protein excreted, glycosuria and urea in diabetic rats. Anacardium treatment, initiated 3 days after diabetes induction, reduced destruction of Renal structure and other metabolic disturbances more than when treatment wasinitiated two weeks after. Histopathological study showed that A. occidentale significantly reduced accumulation of mucopolysaccharides in the kidneys of diabetic animals. The extract of AO at the dose of 300 mg/kg had no nephrotoxic potential in normal rats. The present study demonstrates the efficacy of Anacardium occidentale(hexane extract) in reducing diabetes-induced functional and histological alterations inthe kidneys
Cisplatin is the first platinum-containing anti-cancer drugs. Cisplatin notable side effect of nephrotoxicity limits its use in clinic. Meanwhile, arjunolic acid possesses anti-inflammatory properties and plays protective roles against chemically induced organ pathophysiology. This study was conducted to find out whether arjunolic acid could attenuate kidney damage in rats, and to elucidate its possible mechanism of action. Fifty rats were treated with cisplatin (10 mg/kg) in the presence/absence of 100 or 250 mg/kg arjunolic acid. Arjunolic acid is given 1 h after cisplatin. Morphological changes were assessed in kidney sections stained with Hematoxylin/Eosin and Masson Trichrome. kidney samples were used for measurements of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and its type 1 receptor (TGF-βR1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β by ELISA. Gene expression NFκB was determined by real time-PCR. kidney tissue apoptosis was assessed by measuring the activities of caspase-3/8/9. The Renal protective effect of arjunolic acid was confirmed by approximately normal appearance of Renal tissue and the relatively unaffected serum creatinine and urea levels . Furthermore, arjunolic acid showed dose dependent reduction in cisplatin-induced elevation in Renal levels of TGF-βR1, TGF-β1 , TNF-α, IL-1β and caspases. These findings demonstrated that arjunolic acid attenuates cisplatin nephrotoxicity either indirectly by enhancing body antioxidant activity or directly through several mechanisms, including inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines , blocking activation of TGF-β1 , and anti-apoptotic effects
Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina platensis
The antitumor activity of Arthrospira platensis and/or cisplatin in a murine model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma with hematinic and hepato-Renal protective action
Herein two experiments were conducted. The first experiment evaluated the antitumor activity of Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina platensis, SP) alone or in combination with cisplatin (CDDP) in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice. The second experiment assessed the outcomes of SP and/or CDDP administration on Renal, hepatic, and bone marrow function in normal mice. The results showed that the EAC evoked a significant decrease in the mice survival rate, life span percentage, antioxidant defense system, and Caspase-3 immunoexpression but a significant increase in the viable cancer cells count, tumor and lipid peroxidation biomarkers concentrations, and Ki-67 immunoexpression . The EAC induced alterations improved to various degrees following SP and/or CDDP administration. SP minimized the oxidative hepatic and Renal DNA-damaging and hematotoxic effect of CDDP. Overall, SP has a potent anticancer activity and could be used effective ly as a hematinic and hepato-Renal protective agent with anticancer drugs like CDDP.
Astragaloside IV (ASsingle bondIV)
Astragaloside IV (ASIV) is the essential active component of astragalus that has diverse biological activities. Previous research has suggested its potential ly beneficial effects on diabetic nephropathies. However, its effects and protective mechanism remain unclear. In this study, we conducted a preclinical systematic review to evaluate the efficacy and potential mechanisms of ASIV in reducing kidney damage in diabetes mellitus (DM) models. Studies were searched from nine databases until January 2020. A random-effects model was used to calculate combined standardised mean difference estimates and 95 % confidence intervals. Risk of bias of studies was assessed using the Systematic Review Center for Laboratory Animal Experimentation risk of bias tool 10-item checklist. RevMan 5.3 software was used for statistical analysis . Twenty-three studies involving 562 animals were included in the meta-analysis . Studies quality scores ranged from 2 to 5. The ASIV group induced a marked decrease in serum creatinine (P < 0.00001), blood urea nitrogen (P < 0.00001), 24-h urine protein (P < 0.00001) and pathological score (P < 0.001) compared with the control group. The determined potential mechanisms of ASIV action were relieving oxidative stress , delaying Renal fibrosis, anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammatory action. We conclude that ASIV exerts Renal protective effects in animals with DM through multiple signalling pathways .
Astragalus mongholicus Bunge extract
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has long been recognized as the leading cause of end-stage Renal disease. Recent experimental studies have shown that Astragalus membranaceus (AM) (root) has an inhibitory effect on the oxidative stress that characterizes early DN. This systematic review assesses the efficacy and safety of AM (root), used as a single herb, in slowing the progression of DN in diabetic rat models. We conducted both an electronic search and a search by hand of randomized, controlled AM (root) treatment studies (including its effective components) focusing on animal models of DN. Two reviewers independently selected and assessed the studies. Among the 41 articles identified, 13 reports that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included. Significant beneficial effects were observed in the AM (root) treated groups compared to controls regarding fasting blood glucose levels (standardized mean difference [SMD]: -2.86, 95% confidential interval (CI): -4.26, -1.46, P < 0.001), glomerular filtration rate (SMD: -3.36, 95% CI: -4.69, -2.03, P < 0.00001), urinary albumin excretion rate (SMD: -2.46, 95% CI: -3.75, -1.16, P = 0.0002), and thickness of the glomerular basement membrane (SMD: -3.51, 95% CI: -6.68, -0.34, P = 0.03). AM (root) and its effective components are effective in reducing fasting blood glucose and albuminuria levels , in reversing the glomerular hyperfiltration state, and in ameliorating the pathological changes of early DN in rat models.
Auricularia auricula（L.ex Hook.）Underw extract
The present work was aimed to investigate the protective effects of enzymatic-hydrolyzed Auricularia polytricha polysaccharides (EnAPS) on Renal function s. The characterizations were analyzed by physicochemical methods, and the renoprotections were processed in adenine-induced chronic kidney diseases (CKD ) models of mice. Animal experiments exhibited that EnAPS showed superior Renal-protections contributing to its antioxidant effects of increasing the enzyme activities and decreasing the lipid contents, and anti-inflammatory effects of reducing proinflammatory cytokines than A. polytricha polysaccharides (APS). Besides, the anti-apoptosis effects of EnAPS was proved by down-regulating Bax and Caspase-3 expression s and up-regulating Bcl-2 expression s by molecular biotechnology, and the anti-fibrosis effects was confirmed by histopathological observations of staining. The characterizations indicated that lower molecular weights possibly contributed to the superior renoprotective effects These results suggested that enzymatic hydrolysis had potential effects in enhancing the bioactivities, and the polysaccharides could be used in the development of functional foods supplement against CKD .
Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) increases the rates of acute kidney failure, delayed graft function , and early mortality after kidney transplantation. The pathophysiology involved includes oxidative stress , mitochondrial dysfunction , and immune-mediated injury . The anti-oxidation, anti-apoptosis , and anti-inflammation properties of baicalin, a flavonoid glycoside isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, have been verified. This study therefore assessed the effects of baicalin against Renal IRI in rats.
Baicalin was intraperitoneally injected 30 min before Renal ischemia. serum and kidneys were harvested 24 h after reperfusion. Renal function and histological changes were assessed. Markers of oxidative stress , the Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 signaling pathway , mitochondrial stress , and cell apoptosis were also evaluated.
Baicalin treatment decreased oxidative stress and histological injury , and improved kidney function , as well as inhibiting proinflammatory responses and tubular apoptosis . Baicalin pretreatment also reduced the expression of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, p-NF-κB, and p-IκB protein s, as well as decreasing caspase-3 activity and increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio.
Baicalin may attenuate Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting proinflammatory responses and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis . These effects are associated with the TLR2/4 signaling pathway and mitochondrial stress .
Carica papaya L.extract
Novel and classical Renal biomarkers as evidence for the nephroprotective effect of Carica papaya leaf extract
The present study is aimed at utilization of novel and classical kidney function biomarkers to evaluate the nephroprotective potential of Carica papaya leaf extract (CPLE) in gentamicin nephrotoxicity model in albino rats. The used classical biomarkers were urea and creatinine ; while the new biomarkers were kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and Clusterin. Forty-five male albino rats were assigned into five groups and subjected to different treatments for nine consecutive days (vehicles; gentamicin, 100 mg/kg, subcutaneously; ascorbic acid, 200 mg/kg, orally; CPLE, 150 and 300 mg/kg b wt., orally). Three rats/group were killed on days 3, 6, and 9 for blood and tissue samples for Renal and oxidation markers. Gentamicin resulted in significant increase in urea and creatinine only by the end of the experimental course; while the novel biomarkers were evident as early as 3 days upon gentamicin injection. When concurrently administered with gentamicin, CPLE significantly protected kidney tissues against gentamicin nephrotoxic effects indicated by decrement of both the novel and the classical standard biomarkers, in a dose-dependent manner. CPLE-mediated protection was attributed to its antioxidant potential indicated by significant inhibition of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in both serum and kidney homogenates. The results were further supported by histopathological examination that revealed considerable amelioration of the pathological microscopic alterations induced by repeated gentamicin injection. phytochemical analysis of CPLE indicated presence of tannins and flavonoids . These data may suggest CPLE, based on improvement of both classical and novel Renal markers, as a highly potent nephroprotective and antioxidant from natural source that could be a good remedy in conditions associated with Renal disorders .
The efficacy of Aesculus hippocastanum seeds on diabetic nephropathy in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model
cytokines , such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1, and increased oxidative stress are considered to be responsible for the development of diabetic nephropathy . We hypothesized that Aesculus hippocastanum (AH) seeds may have preventive effects on oxidative stress and TGF-β-related diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats. Twenty-one male Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups (n = 7). Except for the control group, they all had diabetic nephropathy induced by an intraperitoneal injection of STZ. While the diabetes group did not receive any medication, the diabetes + AH group was given the medication for 4 weeks. After the experiment, analyses were performed to evaluate the glomerular area, severity of sclerosis, and fibronectin immunoexpression , as well as levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), TGF-β, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood glucose , creatinine , and protein uria. It was found that glomerular area, severity of sclerosis, fibronectin immunoexpression , and levels of MDA, TGF-β, BUN, creatinine , and protein uria were decreased in the diabetes + AH group. It is known that diabetic nephropathy is induced, to a large extent, by hyperglycemia. In the present study, AH extract ameliorated diabetic nephropathy without decrease in blood glucose levels . In the study, AH seeds showed beneficial effects on the functional properties of the kidney and microscopic improvement s in diabetic nephropathy .
Cinnamomum cassia Presl extract
Nickel nanoparticles (Ni-NPs) have been widely used in various industries related to electronics, ceramics, textiles, and nanomedicine. Ambient and occupational exposure to Ni-NPs may bring about potential detrimental effects on animals and humans. Thus, there is a growing effort to identify compounds that can ameliorate NPs-associated pathophysiologies. The present study examined Cinnamomum cassia (C. cassia) bark extracts (CMBE) for its ameliorative activity against Ni-NPs-induced pathophysiological and histopathological alterations in male Sprague Dawley rats. The biochemical analyses revealed that dosing rats with Ni-NPs at 10 mg/kg/body weight (b.w.) significantly altered the normal structural and biochemical adaptations in the liver and kidney. Conversely, supplementations with CMBE at different doses (225, 200, and 175 mg/kg/b.w. of rat) ameliorated the altered blood biochemistry and reduced the biomarkers of liver and kidney function considerably (p < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. However, the best results were at 225 mg/kg/b.w. of rat. The study provided preliminary information about the protective effect of C. cassia against Ni-NPs indicated liver and kidney damage s. Future investigations are needed to explore C. cassia mechanism of action and isolation of single constituents of C. cassia to assess their pharmaceutical importance accordingly.
In traditional medicine Microtea debilis is used against protein uria. In ligand-binding studies extracts of Microtea debilis have been shown to inhibit the binding of [3H]1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine ([3H]DPCPX) to adenosine-A1 receptors in rat forebrain membranes. Subsequently, cirsimarin, a flavonoid, was isolated as the active component and was shown to function as adenosine antagonist at the adenosine-A1 receptor in-vitro. In this study we have investigated the adenosine-A2 receptor activity of cirsimarin the in-vivo inhibition of the effects of adenosine by cirsimarin in rats, the absorption of cirsimarin and the inhibition of the binding of [3H]DPCPX to the adenosine-A1 receptor by urine samples obtained after oral administration of crude extract of Microtea debilis, cirsimarin or cirsimaritin to rats.
Cirsimarin inhibited the binding of [3H]5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine ([3H]NECA) to adenosine-A2 receptors in rat striatum with an inhibition constant, Ki, of 6.5 ± 0.3 μm. The decrease of heart rate and blood pressure induced by adenosine was significantly inhibited by cirsimarin. After oral administration of 8 and 80 mg kg−1 cirsimarin, the compound could not be detected in either plasma or urine , but the presence of cirsimaritin was established. By use of β-glucuronidase, glucuronides of cirsimaritin were also detected in the urine . The concentrations of cirsimaritin in the plasma were 0.126 ± 0.04, 0.138 ± 0.015, and 0.120 ± 0.022 μm, respectively, 2, 5 and 12 h after administration of 8 mg kg−1 cirsimarin. The concentrations of cirsimaritin in the urine at the same times after administration of the same dose were 205 ± 1.86, 5.05 ± 2.6 and 2.06 ± 0.09 μm, respectively. The inhibition of the binding of [3H]DPCPX to the adenosine-A1 receptor by urine samples collected 2, 5 and 12 h after oral administration of 8 mg kg−1 cirsimarin or a crude extract of Microtea debilis containing approximately 8 mg kg−1 cirsimarin and 2.8 mg kg−1 cirsimaritin, or 6.8 mg kg−1 cirsimaritin, was not significantly different from that of urine samples collected from untreated rats, in contrast with urine samples collected 1 and 2 days after oral administration of 80 mg kg−1 cirsimarin. Approximately 3% of the cirsimarin was excreted in the urine as cirsimaritin.
The results indicate that in the kidney and urinary tract the concentrations of cirsimaritin produced after ingestion of more than 8 mg kg−1 cirsimarin can be high enough to inhibit the interaction of adenosine with its receptors; this might explain the effective ness of Microtea debilis preparations against protein uria in traditional medicine.
Cistanche deserticola Ma extract
The weights of seminal vesicle and prostate gland of castrated young rats were significantly increased by administration of alcoholsoluble extract from decoction of Cistanche deserticola. The weights of testes, seminal vesicle and prostate gland in mice and rats were also increased by the extract. The phagocytic function of intra-abdominal macrophage in mice was activated by de