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Youthful Skin Restoration Formula
The Ultimate Anti Wrinkle Agent
Directions: Megadose 1 tsp for 2-4 weeks a day in fresh squeezed grapefruit juice to allow it to build up in system. Maintenance dose after is 1/4-1/2 tsp a day.
Featuring: Acacetin – Acacia Farnesiana (Linn ) Willd • Acanthopanax Senticosus （Eleutheroside(B+E)） – Acanthopanax Senticosus (Rupr Maxim ) Harms • Agastache Rugosa Kentz – Agastache Rugosa (Fisch Et Mey ) O Kuntz • Albizia Lebbeck – Albizia Lebbeck (L ) Benth • Allium Cepa L Peel （Onion） – Allium Cepa L • Aloe Vera – Aloe Vera（Haw ） Berg • Aloin – Aloe Vera Var Chinensis • Amla (Emblica Officinalis Gaertn ) – Emblica Officinalis Gaertn • Andrographolide Sodium Bisulfate (Asb), A Water-Soluble Form Made From Andrographolide – Andrographis Paniculata (Burm F ) Nees • Angelica Sinensis （Polysaccharide） – Angelica Sinensis (Oliv ) Diels • Anthocyanin Extracts From Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potato – Dioscorea Esculenta (Lour ) Burkill • Areca Nut Procyanidins – Areca Catechu L • Argan – Argania Spinosa • Argireline – Acetyl Hexapeptide 3 • Aruncus Dioicus Var Kamtschaticus – Aruncus Dioicus Var Kamtschaticus Hara • Asiaticoside – Centella Asiatica Extract • Astaxanthin – Haematococcus Pluvialis • Astragalus Membranaceus Root（Astragaloside Iv） – Astragalus Membranaceus (Fisch ) Bunge • Benincasa Hispida (Thunb ) Cogn – Benincasa Hispida (Thunb ) Cogn • Beta-Carotene – Daucus Carota Var Sativa Hoffm • Betaine – Beta Vulgaris L • Bletilla Striata – Bletilla Striata (Thunb ) Reichb F • Blueberry （Anthocyan)） – Sementrigonellae • Boesenbergia Pandurata – Boesenbergia Pandurata (Roxb ) • Bouea Macrophylla – Bouea Macrophylla Extract • Brassica Juncea L Czern • Breviscapin – Erigeron Breviscapus Extract • Calendula Officinalis L (Family: Asteraceae) – Calendula Officinalis L • Camphor ((1R)‐1,7,7‐Trimethylbicyclo[2 2 1]Heptan‐2‐One) – Camphor • Carcinine – Crustacea • Carnosic Acid – Rosmarinus Officinalis • Carnosine – Β- Alanine L-Histidine • Carthamus Tinctorius L – Carthamus Tinctorius L • Catechin – Camellia Sinensis • Cheongsangbangpung-Tang – Geniposide (1), Coptisine Chloride (2), Prim-O-Glucosylcimifugin (3), Berberine Chloride (4), Liquiritin Apioside (5), Liquiritin (6), Ferulic Acid (7), Narirutin (8), 5-O-Methylvisammisoide (9), Hesperidin (10), Arctigenin (11), Baicalin (12), Oxypeucedanin Hydrate (13), Wogonoside (14), Baicalein (15), Arctiin (16), Glycyrrhizin (17), And Pulegone (18), • Chlorogenic Acid – Green Coffee Bean • Citrus Reticulata Blanco Peel – Citrus Reticulata Blanco Cv Reticulata • Citrus Sinensis – Citrus Sinensis • Citrus Unshiu Peel – Citrus Unshiu • Cocoa Pod – Theobroma Cacao L • Coenzyme Q10 – Solanum Tuberosum Leaves • Coix Seed – Coix Lacryma-Jobi L Var Ma-Yuen) • Collagen Peptides, Prolyl‐Hydroxyproline (Pro‐Hyp) And Hydroxyprolyl‐Glycine (Hyp‐Gly) – Prolyl-Hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp) • Colloidal Silicic Acid – Bos Taurus Domesticus Gmelin • Coriander Leaf – Coriandrum Sativum • Corni Fructus – Cornus Officinalis Sieb Et Zucc • Coumestrol – Soybean • Cucumis Sativus L – Cucumis Sativus L • Cudrania Tricuspidata Root – Cudrania Tricuspidata (Carr ) Bur • Curculigoside – Curculigo Orchioides Gaertn • Curcumin – Curcumalonga L • Cyclopia Intermedia – Honeybush Tea • Cynaropicrin From Cynara Scolymus L – Cynara Scolymus L • Daidzein – Glycine Max (Linn ) Merr • Dhea – Dioscorea Nipponica • Dipterocarpus Tuberculatus Roxb – Dipterocarpus Tuberculatus Roxb • Duoligo – Lactulose And Galactooligosaccharides • Egb761 – Ginkgo Biloba Extract • Ellagic Acid – Pomegranate Peel Extract • Emblica Fruits (Phyllanthus Emblica) – Phyllanthus Emblica • Emodin – Rheum Palmatum L • Epicatechin – Camellia Sinensis • Fermented Blackberry (Rubus Fruticosus B – Rubus Fruticosus B • Ferulic Acid – Ferula Sinkiangensisk M Shen • Fingerroot (Boesenbergia Pandurata) – Boesenbergia Pandurata (Roxb ) • Fisetin – Rhus Succedanea L • Fish Collagen Hydrolysates – Fish Skins • Foeniculum Vulgare Mill – Foeniculum Vulgare Mill • French Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Flavangenol®) – French Maritime Pine • Fucoidan – Phaeophyta • Fucoxanthin – Phaeophyta • Galla Chinensis – Rhus Chinensis Mill • Gallic Acid – Rhus Chinensis Mill • Ganoderma Lucidum – Ganoderma Lucidum(Leyss Ex Fr )Karst • Garlic – Allium Sativum L • Gelidium Amansii And Cirsium Japonicum – Gelidium Amansii Lamouroux • Genistein – Euchresta Japonica Hook F Ex Regel • Ginsenoside Derivative 20(S)‐Protopanaxadiol – Panax Ginseng C A Meyer • Ginsenoside Rb1 – Panax Ginseng C A Meyer • Glehnia Littoralis Leaf – Glehnia Littoralis Fr Schmidt Ex Miq • Glucosamine – Natural Chitin • Glutathione – Glutamic Acid, Cystine And Glycine • Glycyrrhizic Acid – Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fisch • Grapefruit Peel – Citrus Paradisi Macf • Grapeseed – Vitis Vinifera L • Hawthorn Berry – Crataegus Pin Nati Fida Bge • Heated Radish Extract – Raphanus Sativus L • Hesperidin – Citrus Reticulata Blanco • Hibiscus Syriacus L – Hibiscus Syriacus L • Hyaluronic Acid – Bovine Vitreous • Hydrangea Serrata (Thunb ) Ser Leaves – Hydrangea Serrata (Thunb ) Ser Leaves • Hydrolyzed Marine Collagen (Vinh Wellness Collagen, Vwc) – Vinh Wellness Collagen • Hyperoside – Hypericum Monogynum L • Isoquercitrin – Scphora Japonica L • Isotretinoin – C15 Alkyl Phosphonate (Compound Iv) And 5-Hydroxy-4-Methyl-2-Furanone (Compound Iii) • Item – Plant Souce • Kaempferia Parviflora – Kaempferia Parviflora Wall Ex Baker • Korean Red Ginseng, Torilis Fructus And Corni Fructus – Korean Red Ginseng • Ktng0345 Prepared From Red Ginseng Extracts – Red Ginseng Extract • L-Ascorbic Acid – Cerasus Pseudocerasus (Lindl ) G Don • Lactobacillus Plantarum Hy7714 – Lactobacillus Plantarum • Lavandula Angustifolia Mill – Lavandula Angustifolia Mill • Lingonberry And Amla Fruit – Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea Linn • Luffa Cylindrica (L ) Roem – Luffa Cylindrica (L ) Roem • Lutein And Zeaxanthin Isomers (L/Zi) – Tagetes Erecta L • Lycium Polysaccharides – Lycium Barbaruml • Lycopene – Lycopersicon Esculentum • Magnolol – Magnolia Officinalis • Malus Pumila Cv Fuji – Malus Pumila • Mangiferin – Mangifera Indica L • Mannitol – Laminaria Japonica） • Marigold (Calendula Officinalis ) – Calendula Officinalis • Methylsulfonylmethane (Msm) – Dimethyl Sulfoxide • Myricetin – Myrica Rubra (Lour ) S Et Zucc • N-Acetylglucosamine – Fructose-6-Phosphate And Glutamine • Naringenin – Amacardi-Um Occidentale L • Nelumbo Nucifero – Nelumbo Nucifero Gaertn • Noni (Morinda Citrifolia) Seeds – Morinda Citrifolia • Ocotea Paranapiacabensis – Ocotea Paranapiacabensis Leaves • Oenothera Biennis – Oenothera Biennis • Oligonol – Litchi Chinensis Sonn • Origanum Majorana L – Origanum Majorana L • Oryzanol – Rice Bran • Oyster (Crassostrea Gigas) Hydrolysates – Crassostrea Gigas • Paeonia Lactiflora Pall – Paeonia Lactiflora Pall • Peach Flower Extract – Amygdalus Persica L • Pearl Powder – Pernulo • Perillafrutescens – Perilla Frutescens (L ) Britt • Persimmon Leaf (Diospyros Kaki Folium) – Diospyros Kaki L Folium • Phlorizin – Apple Tree • Phloroglucinol – 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzoic Acid • Phosphatidylserine Derived From Soy Lecithin – Soy Lecithin • Phytoene – Carotenoid • Phytofluene – Lycopersicon Esculentum • Pine Bark Extract Proanthocyanidins – Pinus Massoniana Lamb • Pineapple – Ananas Comosus • Polysaccharide Derived From Blackcurrants (Ribes Nigrum L ) – Ribes Nigrum L • Poria Cocos(Schw )Wolf – Poria Cocos(Schw )Wolf • Porphyra Tenera – Porphyra • Prunus Persica – Amygdalus Communis L • Pterostilbene – Pterocarpus Indicus Willd • Pycnogenol – Maritime Pine Extract • Quercetin – Sophora Japonica L • Raphanus Sativus – Raphanus Sativus L • Raspberry Fruit – Rubus Idaeus L • Resveratrol – Polygonum Cuspidatum • Rhus Javanica – Rhus Javanica L • Rosa Multiflora Thunb Flower – Rosa Multiflora Thunb • Rosa Rugosa Thunb – Rosa Rugosa Thunb • Rose Hip Powder, Containing Seeds And Shells Of Rosa Canina – Rosa Canina • Rose Petal (Rosa Gallica) – Rosa Gallica L • Rosmarinus Officinalis Rosmarinic Acid – Rosmarinus Officinalis • Rubia Cordifolia – Rubia Cordifolia L • Safranal – Saffron Crocus • Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bge – Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bge • Salvia Plebeia R Br – Herba Salviae Plebeiae • Sargassum Muticum Ethyl Acetate – Sar gassum Muticum • Saxifraga Stolonifera Curt – Saxifraga Stolonifera Curt • Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae Rhamnoides L ) Fruit Blend – Hippophae Rhamnoides L • Si-Wu-Tang – Angelica Sinensis, Ligusticum Chuanxiong, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Radix Rehmanniae Preparata • Siegesbeckia Glabrescens – Siegesbeckia Glabrescens Makino • Silymarin – Silybum Marianum (L ) Gaertn • Sodium Hyaluronate – Bovine Vitreous • Soy Isoflavone Aglycone – Soybean • Strawberry – Fragaria × Ananassa Duch • Sulforaphane – Brassica Oleracea L Var Italic Planch • Sulfuretin – • Taraxacum Mongolicum Hand -Mazz – Taraxacum Mongolicum Hand -Mazz • Tectorigenin – Belamcanda Chinensis （L ）Dc • Tremella Fuciformis – Tremella Fuciformis • Tribulus Terrestris L – Tribulus Terrestris L • Tyrosol – Olive Oil • Ubiquinol (Coenzyme Q10) – Sus Scrofu Domestica Brisson • Ulmus Davidiana Var Japonica Ethanolic – Ulmus Davidiana Var Japonica • Ursolic Acid – Prunella Vulgaris L • Verisol – Collagen Peptide • Vigna Angularis – Vigna Angularis (Willd ) Ohwi Et Ohashi） • White Lotus Flower – Nelumbo Sp • Zingiber Mioga – Zingiber Mioga • Ziyuglycoside I – Lactuca Formosana Maxim • Ziziphus Jujuba Mill – Ziziphus Jujuba Mill • Α-Lipoic Acid
INGREDIENTS AND SCIENCE:
ultraviolet (UV ) is one of the major factors harmful to skin health. irradiation with ultraviolet accelerates the decline of skin function, causing the skin to have deep wrinkles, dryness, decreased procollagen production, and degradation of collagen. Novel materials are needed to prevent the aging of the skin by blocking the effects of UV . Safflower seed oil (Charthamus tinctorius L., SSO) contains significantly high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and phytochemicals. SSO has been traditionally used in China, Japan, and Korea to improve skin and hair. Our objective in this study was to determine the effect of SSO and its active compound acacetin on UV B –induced skin photoaging in HaCaT cells and human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). SSO inhibited UV B –induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP -1) at both protein and mRNA levels in HaCaT cells and HDF. MMP -1 is known to play important roles in collagen degradation and wrinkle formation. Acacetin, a type of flavonoid , is present in SSO. Similar to SSO, acacetin also inhibited UV B –induced MMP -1 protein and mRNA levels in HaCaT cells and HDF. MMP -1 mRNA is primarily regulated by the mitogen –activated kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Acacetin regulated the phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and c-jun, but did not inhibit the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2, p38 and AKT. Taken together, these results indicate that SSO and its active compound acacetin can prevent UV B –induced MMP -1 expression, which leads to skin photoaging, and may therefore have therapeutic potential as an anti-wrinkle agent to improve skin health.
Acanthopanax senticosus （Eleutheroside(B+E)）
This study was performed to investigate anti-wrinkle effects of Acanthopanax senticosus (AS) on ultraviolet B (UV B )-induced photoaging with wrinkle formation. AS extract showed higher DPPH radical scavenging activity (3 μg/mL as IC50) and collagenase inhibition (1.52 mg/mL as IC50) than those of ascorbic acid (50 μg/mL and 2.17 mg/mL, respectively). Cell proliferation and type I pN collagen synthesis were increased by 11.4% and 96.4%, respectively, compared with non treatment control. In vivo, SKH-1 hairless mice were administrated AS 400 mg/kg for 10 weeks with UV B irradiation three times a week. After 10 weeks, a visual assessment and replica assay were performed on each mouse. According to visual assessment of close-up photos and skin replica, oral administration of A. senticosus affected on inhibition of wrinkle formation caused by UV B irradiation on the skin of mice as compared to the vehicle treated control mice. These results indicated that A. senticosus could protect skin wrinkle formation caused by collagen synthesis of fibroblast cells and photo-irradiation of UV B in hairless mice.
Agastache rugosa Kentz
This study was to investigate anti-skin wrinkle effect of Agastache rugosa Kentz extracts by extraction processes. In the comparison of the effect of the solvent extraction, the extracts by 70% ethanol (EE) showed better biological activities that those by hot water. Therefore, further fermented Agastache rugosa was applied to 70% ethanol extraction process (FEE). FEE showed higher DPPH scavenging activity of 62.98% than EE’s 62.71% at 1.0mg/mℓ, but there was no significant. Elastase inhibition was measured 23.0% from FEE at 1.0mg/mℓ. Cytotoxicity showed the highest 16.26% from FEE, this value is safe in the cell experiment. collagen production showed 113.1ng/mℓ from FEE, on the other hand EE was measured 77.4ng/mℓ in adding 1.0mg/mℓ. MMP -1 production was observed 1398pg/mℓ from FEE and EE was measured 1632pg/mℓ. These results were found the highest Antioxidant and anti-wrinkle effect. As a result, it was also confirmed that anti-skin wrinkle activities of the Agastache rugosa Kentz extract was correlated with anti-oxidant activities.
The largest part of human body is skin, which is also the outermost organ; it acts as a first line of defense of our body. After a certain period of time there is a gradual loss of skin elasticity and collagen fibres that we called aging . There are various signs of aging and one of them is skin wrinkling . When aging starts a fold or crease formed in the skin which is known as wrinkles or rhytide. wrinkles formation occurs due to weakening or loss of body mass or long time contact with water. collagen and elastin are primary structural components of our skin and it is essential to stop the breakdown of collagen to prevent ageing and wrinkles formation. There are different factors which enhance wrinkling and are sun damage, aging , smoking, lack of hydration , unnatural facial expressions, genetics and various other factors. There are so many herbs available for treatment of wrinkles such as Manjistha (Rubia cordifolia), Sirish (Albizia lebbeck), Aloe vera, Cucumber (Curcumis sativum), Haberlea rhodopensis, Ginger (Zingiber officinalis), Panax ginseng, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Honey etc. The present review article is a compilation of herbs used for treatment of skin wrinkles with all the necessary information regarding mechanism of action, availability etc.
Allium cepa L. Peel （onion）
In this study, the antibacterial , Antioxidative and inhibitory effects of Allium cepa peel extracts on tyrosinase and elastase were investigated. MIC values of the ethyl acetate fraction of Allium cepa peel on especially, S. aureus among the skin resident flora (Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus; Propionibacterium acnes , P. acnes ; Pityrosporum ovale, P. ovale; Escherichia coli, E. coli) were 0.06%. The aglycone fraction showed more excellent free radical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, DPPH) scavenging activity (FSC50=5.05μg/mL). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities (OSC50) of the ethyl acetate fraction and aglycone fraction in the luminol-dependent Fe3+−EDTA/H2O2 system were 0.05 and 0.03μg/mL, respectively. The cellular protective effect of the aglycone fraction on the rose-bengal sensitized photohemolysis of human erythrocytes exhibited more prominent (τ50, 480 min at 25μg/mL). The inhibitory effects (IC50) of the ethyl acetate fraction and aglycone fraction on tyrosinase were 9.16 and 8.68μg/mL, the inhibitory effect (IC50) of the aglycone fraction on elastase was 14.12μg/mL The transepidermal water loss of the cream containing 0.1% ethyl acetate fraction was decreased from 8.3g/m2h in control to 6.8g/m2h in the subjects applied with cream containing the ethyl acetate fraction. These results indicate that extract/fractions of Allium cepa peel can function as Antioxidant in biological systems, particularly skin exposed to UV radiation by scavenging 1O2 and other ROS, and protect cellular membranes against ROS, and possibly as antiaging agents . Allium cepa peel extract could be used as a new cosmeceutical for whitening and anti-wrinkle products.
No studies have yet been undertaken to determine the effect of aloe gel on the clinical signs and biochemical changes of aging skin.
We wanted to determine whether dietary aloe vera gel has anti-aging properties on the skin.
Thirty healthy female subjects over the age of 45 were recruited and they received 2 different doses (low-dose: 1,200 mg/d, high-dose: 3,600 mg/d) of aloe vera gel supplementation for 90 days. Their baseline status was used as a control. At baseline and at completion of the study, facial wrinkles were measured using a skin replica, and facial elasticity was measured by an in vivo suction skin elasticity meter. skin samples were taken before and after aloe intake to compare the type I procollagen and matrix metalloprotein ase 1 (MMP -1) mRNA levels by performing real-time RT-PCR.
After aloe gel intake, the facial wrinkles improved significantly (p<0.05) in both groups, and facial elasticity improved in the lower-dose group. In the photoprotected skin, the type I procollagen mRNA levels were increased in both groups, albeit without significance; the MMP -1 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in the higher-dose group. Type I procollagen immunostaining was substantially increased throughout the dermis in both groups.
Aloe gel significantly improves wrinkles and elasticity in photoaged human skin, with an increase in collagen production in the photoprotected skin and a decrease in the collagen-degrading MMP -1 gene expression. However, no dose-response relationship was found between the low-dose and high-dose groups.
Beauty for men and women universally holds a boundless fascination. aging of skin is usually associated with increased wrinkling , sagging and increased laxity. Matrix metaloproteins (MMP ), collagen, elastin and elastic fibers are all essential for strengthening of muscles, tendons and joints. Degradation of these vital tissues and/or oxidative damage of DNA lead to loosening of the skin and eventually formation of wrinkles. There are numerous synthetic skincare formulations containing active ingredient s such as alpha hydroxyl acids (AHAs), hyaluronic acid, cohesive polydensified matrix (CPM), etc., that have adverse reactions; for instance, allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, phototoxic and photo-allergic reactions. Plant-derived polyphenolic substances such as alloin, catechin, epicatechin, curcumin, myricetin, quercetin, etc., are beneficial as anti-aging ingredient s. Many herbal polyphenolic substances have found to be effective in reducing the rate and intensity of wrinkle formation. This chapter deals with the process of wrinkle formation and the role of various plant polyphenolic s in preventing and/or delaying these wrinkles.
Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.)
Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) is a rich dietary source of vitamin C, minerals and amino acids, and also contains a wide variety of phenolic compounds. Amla has also been used as a principal constituent of many preparations of Ayurved, the Indian system of traditional medicine. Gelatin hydrolysate, also known as collagen peptide as a functional ingredient , is obtained from animal hide or fish scales. Ingestion of gelatin or collagen peptide affects various functions of the body, including bone, the achilles tendon, and skin. However, there are few data on the effects of amla extract and collagen peptide on photoaging in vivo. In the present study, therefore, we administered amla extract and/or collagen peptide to hairless mice that were repeatedly exposed of UV B irradiation , and examined the resulting effects on photoaging. Amla extract and collagen peptide suppressed the formation of 8-OHdG-positive cells and epidermal hyperplasia, and controlled skin hydration , thus reducing skin wrinkle formation in the mice. collagen peptide, but not amla extract, also enhanced the production of collagen. We demonstrated that amla extract and collagen peptide exerted an additive effect in ameliorating skin dehydration and wrinkle formation, suggesting that they were able to attenuate photoaging effectively in UV B -irradiated hairless mice.
Andrographolide sodium bisulfate (ASB), a water-soluble form made from andrographolide
Andrographolide sodium bisulfate (ASB), a water-soluble form made from andrographolide through sulfonating reaction, is an Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drug; however, the antiphotoaging effect of ASB has still not been revealed. oxidative stress and inflammation are known to be responsible for ultraviolet (UV ) irradiation induced skin damage and consequently premature aging . In this study, we aimed at examining the effect of ASB on UV –induced skin photoaging of mice by physiological and histological analysis of skin and examination of skin Antioxidant enzymes and immunity analyses. Results showed that topical administration of ASB suppressed the UV –induced skin thickness, elasticity, wrinkles, and water content, while ASB, especially at dose of 3.6 mg/mouse, increased the skin collagen content by about 53.17%, decreased the epidermal thickness by about 41.38%, and prevented the UV –induced disruption of collagen fibers and elastic fibers. Furthermore, ASB decreased MDA level by about 40.21% and upregulated the activities of SOD and CAT and downregulated the production of IL-1β, IL-6 , IL-10, and TNF-α in UV -irradiated mice. Our study confirmed the protective effect of ASB against UV –induced photoaging and initially indicated that this effect can be attributed to its Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo, suggesting that ASB may be a potential antiphotoaging agent .
Angelica sinensis （polysaccharide）
The effects that ultraviolet rays elicit on collagen synthesis and degradation are the most common causes of wrinkle formation and photo-aging in skin. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of Angelica acutiloba root ethanol extract (AAEE) to promote collagen synthesis and inhibit collagen degradation in human dermal fibroblasts . By examining total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, electron donating ability, radical scavenging activity, and superoxide dismutase-like activity, we found that AAEE exhibited fairly good Antioxidant activity. Treatment with AAEE significantly increased type I procollagen production by cultured fibroblasts , as well as reduced ultraviolet –induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP -1) expression and MMP -2 activity in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). In addition, AAEE significantly increased TIMP-1 mRNA expression (p < 0.05), although without an associated dose-dependent increase in TIMP-1 protein expression. In summary, we suggest that AAEE may be a potentially effective agent for the prevention or alleviation of skin–wrinkle formation induced by ultraviolet rays.
anthocyanin extracts from purple-fleshed sweet potato
This study investigated the effect of anthocyanin extracts from purple-fleshed sweet potato (PSP-AE) on ultraviolet B (UV B )-induced skin photoaging in BALB/c-nu mice. UPLC-QTOF-MS analysis showed six compounds were identified from PSP-AE. Administration of PSP-AE ameliorated the UV B -irradiated macroscopic and histopathological lesions of the skin via suppressing epidermal hyperplasia and collagen degradation, while improving the content of skin moisture and hydroxyproline. Additionally, PSP-AE inhibited the UV B –induced oxidative stress and increased the Antioxidant enzyme activities. Results showed PSP-AE inhibited the UV B -irradiated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines , such as tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed PSP-AE remarkably decreased the protein levels of phosphorylated c-Jun-Nterminal kinase , extracellular signal-regulated kinase , and p38. Likewise, UV B induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa-B and the expression of matrix metalloprotein ase 1 were diminished by pretreatment of PSP-AE. Therefore, PSP-AE had the potential to attenuate the UV B -irradiated skin oxidative stress and inflammatory response .
Areca nut procyanidins
Chronic exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV ) light induces photoaging in human skin. Our previous results have shown that areca nut procyanidins (ANPs) have Antioxidant capacity and possess potential anti-inflammatory effects . Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of ANPs on UV B –induced photoaging. In the present study, dorsal skin of CD-1 mice was exposed to UV B at a minimal erythema dose (130 mJ/cm2) throughout a 3-week period. The effects of ANPs and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenolic constituent of green tea, on UV B –induced photoaging were compared. The results show that oral administration of ANP prevented UV B –induced photoaging, indicated by epidermal thickness and collagen disorientation, and inhibited UV B –induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and matrix metalloprotein ases (MMPs ), such as MMP -2, MMP -9, and TIMP1. The protective potential of ANP on UV B –induced photodamage was comparable to that of EGCG. These data suggest that ANP could be useful as a dietary supplement to attenuate solar UV B –induced premature skin aging .
During menopause, the decrease of estrogenic secretion induces the disruption of skin functioning, thus causing the decline in skin elasticity characteristic of skin aging . The purpose of this study was to evaluate in postmenopausal women the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin elasticity.
Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group of 30 participants received dietary argan oil, the control group of 30 participants received olive oil, and both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forearm during a 60-day period. Assessments of skin elasticity parameters, ie, the three R-parameters (R2 or gross-elasticity of the skin, R5 or net elasticity of the skin, and R7 or biological elasticity), and the resonance running time (RRT) at both volar forearms of the two groups were performed during three visits: before starting oils consumption and application, after 30 days of oils consumption and application, and after 60 days of oils consumption and application.
The consumption of argan oil led to a significant increase of gross-elasticity of the skin (R2) (P<0.001), net elasticity of the skin (R5) (P<0.001), biological elasticity (R7) (P<0.001), and a significant decrease of RRT (P=0.002). The application of argan oil led to a significant increase of gross-elasticity of the skin (R2) (P<0.001), net elasticity of the skin (R5) (P<0.001), biological elasticity (R7) (P=0.001), and a significant decrease of RRT (P<0.001).
Our findings suggest that the daily consumption and/or topical application of argan oil have an anti-aging effect on the skin demonstrated by the improvement of skin elasticity, characterized by an increase of R-parameters (R2, R5, and R7) and a decrease of RRT.
Argireline is a synthetic peptide that is patterned from the N-terminal end of the protein SNAP-25 and has been shown to reduce the degree of facial wrinkles. It is reported to inhibit vesicle docking by preventing formation of the ternary SNARE complex and by interfering in catecholamine release. The anti-wrinkle efficacy of argireline has not been studied in Chinese subjects.
The objective of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of argireline in the treatment of peri-orbital wrinkles in Chinese subjects.
A total of 60 subjects received a randomized treatment of argireline or placebo in a ratio of 3:1. Argireline or placebo was applied to their peri-orbital wrinkles twice daily for 4 weeks, and then evaluations were made for the improvements in wrinkles. In the subjective evaluation, Daniell’s classification and Seeman’s standard were applied to make a global assessment of changes in the appearance of peri-orbital lines. In the objective evaluation, silicone replicas of the skin at the application area were made before and after the treatment, which were analyzed by a wrinkle -analysis apparatus.
In the subjective evaluation, the total anti-wrinkle efficacy in the argireline group was 48.9 %, compared with 0 % in the placebo group. In the objective evaluation, the parameters of roughness were all decreased in the argireline group (p < 0.01), while no decrease was obvious in the placebo group (p > 0.05).
This study showed that argireline had a significant anti-wrinkle effect in Chinese subjects.
Aruncus dioicus var. kamtschaticus
In this study, the Antioxidant and anti-wrinkling effects of extracts from Aruncus diocius var. kamtschaticus (ADV) were investigated. According to the results, the ethanol extract has better Antioxidant and anti-wrinkling effects than the water extract. The amounts of total polyphenol and flavonoid compounds in the ethanol extract were 122 and 36 mg/g, respectively, while those in the water extract were 87 and 26 mg/g. The Antioxidant activities of the ethanol and water extracts were 395 and 4,682 μg/mL as the RC50 values for the DPPH radical scavenging activity, and 227 and 366 μg/mL for the ABTS+ radical scavenging activity, respectively. The reducing power of the ethanol extract (1.58 at 2 mg/mL) was higher than that of the water extract (0.88 at 2 mg/mL). The astringent activities of the ethanol and water extracts were 91.27 and 16.35% at 10 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the ADV ethanol extract treatment of the fibroblast cell after UV irradiation resulted in increased cell viability (10% at 100 μg/mL) and collagen biosynthesis (33% at 100 μg/mL), with a lowering in the MMP -1 expression level (16.8 % at 100 μg/mL). These results demonstrate that AVD provides a remarkable and significant tensor and anti-wrinkling effect on the skin, which could be of a great use in anti-aging skin care products.
This chapter begins with the description of the chemical and pharmacological properties of asiaticoside. Asiaticoside, a saponin component that has been isolated from C. asiatica, induces type I collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblast cells. C. asiatica contains triterpenoids, essential oils, amino acids, and other compounds, such as vellarin. The terpenoids include asiaticoside, centelloside, madecassoside, brahmoside, brahminoside, thankuniside, and centellose, and asiatic, brahmic, centellic, and madecassic acids. Asiaticoside produces no side effects such as localized erythema or any kind of discomfort. Following this, the antibiotic character of asiaticoside, anti-herpes simplex virus activities of asiaticoside, wound-healing activity of asiaticoside, anxiolytic properties of asiaticoside, and the anti-wrinkle activity of asiaticoside are described. Asiaticoside induced the phosphorylation of both Smad2 and Smad3. In addition, the asiaticoside-induced binding of Smad3 and Smad4 has also been detected. It is also demonstrated that treatment with asiaticoside induces the synthesis of type I collagen , and the mechanisms underlying its action may be mediated via a TGFβ receptor I kinase (TβRI kinase )-independent Smad activation pathway in cultured human dermal fibroblast cells. It is concluded that asiaticoside can induce the synthesis of type I collagen and that the mechanisms underlying its action are mediated via a TβRI kinase -independent Smad activation pathway.
Astaxanthin is a carotenoid with potent Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of astaxanthin on skin deterioration, we confirmed its role in epidermal-dermal interactions in vitro. Astaxanthin treatment suppressed ultraviolet B (UV B )-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion in keratinocytes, and matrix metalloproteinase-1 secretion by fibroblasts cultured in UV B -irradiated keratinocyte medium. To verify these findings, we conducted a 16-week clinical study with 65 healthy female participants. Participants were orally administered either a 6 mg or 12 mg dose of astaxanthin or a placebo. wrinkle parameters and skin moisture content significantly worsened in the placebo group after 16 weeks. However, significant changes did not occur in the astaxanthin groups. Interleukin-1α levels in the stratum corneum significantly increased in the placebo and low-dose groups but not in the high-dose group between weeks 0 and 16. This study was performed in Japan from August to December, when changing environmental factors, such as UV and dryness, exacerbate skin deterioration. In conclusion, our study suggests that long-term prophylactic astaxanthin supplementation may inhibit age-related skin deterioration and maintain skin conditions associated with environmentally induced damage via its anti-inflammatory effect .
Astragalus membranaceus root（Astragaloside IV）
Inhibitory effect of Astragalus membranaceus root on matrix metalloproteinase-1 collagenase expression and procollagen destruction in ultraviolet B-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts by suppressing nuclear factor kappa-B activity
Objectives The root of Astragalus membranaceus, regarded as a tonic in traditional Korean medicine, has been prescribed for long periods to treat chronic illness by boosting the immune system. ultraviolet (UV ) irradiation causes damage to skin connective tissue by degrading collagen, which is a major structural component of the extracellular matrix . Such damage is considered to be a cause of the wrinkling observed in premature ageing of the skin. This study has investigated the photo-protective effect of A. membranaceus on UV B radiation-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB ) activity in human dermal fibroblasts .
Methods Hs68 fibroblast cells cultured with various concentrations of A. membranaceus were exposed to UV B (40 mJ/cm2). Activation of NF-κB P65 and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP -1) and type 1 procollagen were measured by Western blotting. Translocation of NF-κB P65 and MMP -1 regulation were also examined by immunocytochemistry.
Key findings Western blotting and immunocytochemistry results showed that A. membranaceus inhibited UV B –induced translocation of NF-κB P65 and MMP -1 expression. The data suggested that A. membranaceus restored type 1 procollagen synthesis by inhibiting NF-κB P65 activity and MMP -1 expression in UV B -exposed human dermal fibroblasts .
Conclusion A. membranaceus is a candidate for use in skin protection from UV B –induced skin inflammation and photoageing .
Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn.
ageing is the phase of gradual decline of body efficiency and metabolic activities after reaching a maturity stage. Free radicals cause oxidative alterations in collagen, elastin material and changes in membrane characteristics and induce polymerization reactions. Use of topical Antioxidant s can overcome some of these effects and retard actinic ageing . Herbal products are popular due to their minimum risk of side-effects with maximum efficacy. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antiageing potential of Benincasa hispida fruit extract as not many scientific studies have been carried out to explore its utility as skin renewal enhancer and as an Antioxidant . After removing the outer layer and the seeds, the fruit pulp was dried. The dried fruit pulp was extracted successively with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol by Soxhlation for 2 days. Methanol was recovered under vacuum and a dry extract was obtained (yield 4.2% w/w), which was stored in a desiccator. Suitable topical cream base for effective carriage of fruit extract was developed and its in vitro evaluation for skin renewal activity was tested by application to the stratum corneum of human cadaver skin and by dansyl chloride fluorescence method. The results show that the cream prepared from Benincasa fruit extract may prove as an antiageing preparation and can be used for retarding the symptoms of ageing .
This paper described the extraction/purification of β-carotene from recombinant E.coli and evaluation of anti-wrinkle activity of purified β-carotene. No significant differences in extraction yields were observed when hexane or isobutyl acetate was used. However, extraction from wet-cell cake resulted in 2-fold higher amount of β-carotene than that from dry cells. Disruption of 5 g-wet cells by ultrasonic homogenizer, acetone dehydration , extraction with isobutyl acetate resulted in 36 mg of β-carotene corresponding to 61.2% of recovery. The formation and separation of β-carotene crystal improved the purity. 633 mg of β-carotene crystal with 93% purity was obtained from 223 g/L of wet-cell cake harvested from 2.5-L fed-batch culture broth. The cultures of normal human primary fibroblast were performed to investigate the effect of β-carotene on cytotoxicity as MTT assay and anti-wrinkle activity as collagen synthesis assays. 1.7μM of β-carotene was found to be optimal concentration at which 1.4-fold higher amount of collagen was synthesized than that in absence of β-carotene. This indicates that highly purified β-carotene can be obtained from recombinant E.coli by applying simple method with less toxic solvent and can be used in functional cosmetic s as anti-wrinkle agent .
Betaine is widely distributed in plants, microorganisms, in several types of food and in medical herbs, including Lycium chinense. The administration of 100 mg betaine/kg body weight/day is an effective strategy for preventing ultraviolet irradiation ‑induced skin damage. The present study aimed to determine the preventive effects of betaine on ultraviolet B (UV B ) irradiation ‑induced skin damage in hairless mice. The mice were divided into three groups: Control (n=5), UV B ‑treated vehicle (n=5) and UV B ‑treated betaine (n=5) groups. The level of irradiation was progressively increased between 60 mJ/cm2 per exposure at week 1 (one minimal erythematous dose = 60 mJ/cm2) and 90 mJ/cm2 per exposure at week 7. The formation of wrinkles significantly increased following UV B exposure in the UV B ‑treated vehicle group. However, treatment with betaine suppressed UV B ‑induced wrinkle formation, as determined by the mean length, mean depth, number, epidermal thickness and collagen damage. Furthermore, oral administration of betaine also inhibited the UV B ‑induced expression of mitogen ‑activated protein kinase kinase (MEK ), extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK ), and matrix metalloprotein ase‑9 (MMP ‑9). These findings suggested that betaine inhibits UV B ‑induced skin damage by suppressing increased expression of MMP ‑9 through the inhibition of MEK and ERK .
Polysaccharide isolated from Bletilla striata, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (Bletilla striata polysaccharide [BSP]) has been found to play important roles in endothelial cells proliferation, inducible nitric oxide stimulation, wound healing acceleration and other processes. Recent studies found that B. striata has anti-oxidative properties, however, potential anti-aging effects of BSP in whole organisms has not been characterized.
To investigate whether BSP has anti-aging effects on Caenorhabditis elegans.
After treatment with BSP, the lifespan, locomotion ability, and stress resistance of C. elegans was determined. To provide insight into the underlying mechanism for the anti-aging effect of BSP, we measured its effect on bacterial growth, brood size of C. elegans, and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway.
After BSP treatment, the lifespan of C. elegans was extended, and its locomotion ability and stress resistance were increased. BSP was found to have no effect on bacterial growth or on reproduction of C. elegans, However, mRNA levels of age-1 and hcf-1 were reduced after BSP treatment. Additionally, we observed that BSP did not extend the lifespan of daf-16 mutant animals.
BSP produces an anti-aging effect on C. elegans through the insulin/IGF signaling pathway and holds promise for future development as a functional food.
Intermediate-wavelength solar radiation, also known as ultraviolet B (UV B : 290-320 nm) radiation, may cause premature aging and oxidative damage-dependent skin cancer in humans. UV B –induced formation of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) －often a consequence of excessive exposure to these rays－could activate matrix metalloprotein ases (MMPs ) such as MMP -1 and MMP -3. These enzymes break down type I collagen in human fibroblasts . In this study, we assessed the Antioxidant and anti-aging effects of ethyl acetate extract of blueberry (EEB). An antioxidant test in blueberries evaluated ROS production using CCD-986sk cells and DPPH assay. In order to evaluate the anti-wrinkle efficacy of blueberries, the MMP -1 production and type 1 procollagen synthesis evaluated and the expression of MMP 1, 3 were tested through Western blot and RT- PCR. EEB exhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhy-drazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reduced the production of UV B –induced ROS. Also, EEB inhibited UV B –induced processes associated with photoaging and skin cancer, such as reduction in procollagen production and increase in MMP -1 production. More precisely, EEB (50 μg/ml) mark-edly suppressed mRNA and protein levels of MMP -1 and -3. The anti-aging effects are attributable to the Antioxidant activity of EEB. These findings indicate that EEB has a protective effect against UV B –induced aging in human fibroblast cells by regulating the levels of type-1 procollagen, MMP -1, and MMP -3.
photoaging is a severe skin damage that occurs as a result of exposure to external elements, primarily ultraviolet (UV ) irradiation . Chronically, UV -irradiated skin exhibits the signs of sunburn and hyperpigmentation with the destruction of connective tissues. Previously, Boesenbergia pandurata (B. pandurata) and its active compound panduratin A showed antiphotoaging activities in vitro and in vivo.
The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of B. pandurata intake on skin hydration , gloss , wrinkling , and elasticity.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to clinically evaluate the effect of B. pandurata ethanol extract (BPE) containing 8% of panduratin A on human skin hydration , gloss , wrinkling , and elasticity. Ninety-two subjects were randomly assigned to receive tablets containing either BPE or placebo for 12 weeks.
The test group had significantly increased skin hydration and gloss and decreased wrinkling compared to the placebo group at 12 weeks. There was no significant difference in skin elasticity between the two groups; however, the increment rate in the test group was higher than that in the placebo group at 12 weeks. None of the subjects developed adverse symptoms during the study period.
These results suggest that BPE can be used as a nutraceutical or nutricosmetic material for improving human skin hydration , gloss , and wrinkling .
ultraviolet (UV ) light, a main cause of photoaging, leads to collapse of skin structure, resulting in wrinkle formation and dehydration . The present study assessed the Anti-Photo aging and moisturizing effects of Bouea macrophylla extract (BRE). UV B -irradiated hairless mice were orally administered with BME (300 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. BME ameliorated wrinkle formation, skin thickening, and inelasticity. BME upregulated COL1A1, COL3A1, COL4A1, and COL7A1 mRNA levels through activation of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad pathway, thereby recovering the content of collagen reduced by UV B . Further, BME suppressed UV B –induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP )-3 and MMP -13 expression and inhibited MMP -2 and MMP -9 activity by mediating the mitogen –activated protein kinase s (MAPKs)/activator protein -1 (AP-1). BME improved moisture content by stimulating the expression of cornified envelope protein s and filaggrin-processing enzymes. Overall, the results show that BME prevents photoaging and promotes moisturization in UV B -irradiated hairless mice, suggesting its potential as a nutraceutical candidate for Anti-Photo aging and moisturizing effects .
Brassica juncea L. Czern.
Purpose: This study is to evaluate biological activity of leaf and seed extracts of Brassica juncea L and examine their utility value as cosmetic ingredient s. Methods: Total polyphenol, total flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity, and inhibition activities of tyrosinase and elastase were measured to evaluate biological activity of leaf and seed extracts of Brassica juncea L. Czern.(EtOH). In addition, to investigate the Antioxidant effect and enzyme inhibition activities in relation to concentrations, correlation of different concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL of each extract were comparatively analyzed. Results: The highest total polyphenol contents of leaf and seed extracts of Brassica juncea L (50, 100, and 200 mg/mL) were 15.03 and 27.72 mg TAE/g, respectively, while the total flavonoid contents were 58.84 and 126.75 mg QE/g, respectively. The DPPH scavenging effect was confirmed as 65.26% in leaf extracts and 83.17% in seed extracts, while the ABTS radical scavenging effect was confirmed as 47.06% in leaf